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Hubungan Asupan Gizi dan Aktivitas Fisik dengan Status Gizi (Skor z IMT/U) Anak Usia 7-12 Tahun Penyandang Disabilitas Intelektual di Kota Semarang

*Annisa Fadillah  -  Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang|Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Laksmi Widajanti  -  Bagian Gizi Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang|Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Sri Achadi Nugraheni  -  Bagian Gizi Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang|Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Malnutrisi dan disabilitas merupakan masalah utama kesehatan global. Prevalensi anak disabilitas intelektual di Indonesia meningkat dari 0,92 % menjadi 2,45 %. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui ada hubungan asupan gizi dan aktivitas fisik dengan status gizi anak disabilitas intelektual di Kota Semarang.

Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan desain cross sectional. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan total sampling dan dilakukan di SLB Negeri Kota Semarang. Sampel terdiri dari siswa SDLB kelas 1-6 yang berumur 7-12 tahun. Jumlah sampel yang digunakan adalah sebanyak 46 orang.

Hasil: Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui status gizi anak disabilitas intelektual tergolong normal (56,5 %). Anak disabilitas intelektual mengalami defisit energi, karbohidrat, lemak, besi, seng, kalsium, iodium, dan vitamin C. Dan memiliki asupan gizi kategori baik untuk asupan protein dan vitamin A. Hasil uji statistik Rank Spearman menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada hubungan antara asupan karbohidrat, besi, seng, kalsium, iodium, vitamin A, vitamin C dan aktivitas fisik dengan status gizi (skor z IMT/U) (p>0,05). Ada hubungan asupan energi dan protein dengan status gizi (skor z IMT/U) (p=0,005, r=0,40;  p=0,001, r=0,53) dengan korelasi sedang dan arah positif. Ada hubungan asupan lemak dengan status gizi (skor z IMT/U) (p=0,001, r=-0,4) dengan korelasi sedang dan arah negatif.

Simpulan: Ada hubungan antara tingkat kecukupan energi, protein dan lemak dengan status gizi anak penyandang disabilitas intelektual dan tidak terdapat hubungan antara tingkat kecukupan karbohidrat, besi, seng, iodium, kalsium, vitamin A, vitamin C dan aktivitas fisik dengan status gizi anak disabilitas intelektual di Kota Semarang.

 

Kata kunci: Asupan Gizi, Aktivitas Fisik, Status Gizi, Disabilitas Intelektual.

 

ABSTRACT

Title: Relationship of nutritional intake and physical activities with nutritional status (score z imt/u ) children age 7-12 years of intellectual disability in semarang city

 

Background: Malnutrition and disability are the main problems of global health. The prevalence of children with intellectual disabilities in Indonesia increased from 0.92% to 2.45%. This study aimed to determine the relationship between nutritional intake and physical activity with the nutritional status of children with intellectual disabilities in the city of Semarang.

Method: This was cross sectional research and conducted in Semarang State SLB. The sample consisted of SDLB students in grades 1-6 who were 7-12 years old. The number of samples used was 46 people.

Result: Based on the results of the study, it was found that the nutritional status of children with intellectual disabilities was classified as normal (56.5%). Intellectual disability children have deficits in energy, carbohydrate, fat, iron, zinc, calcium, iodine, and vitamin C and have good nutrition for the intake of protein and vitamin A. The results of the Spearman Rank statistical test sowed that there was no relationship between carbohydrate intake, iron, zinc, calcium, iodine, vitamin A, vitamin C and physical activity with nutritional status (BMI/U z score) (p> 0.05). There was correlation between energy and protein intake with nutritional status (IMT / U z score) (p = 0.005, r = 0.40; p = 0.001, r = 0.53) with moderate correlation and positive direction. There was a correlation between fat intake and nutritional status (IMT / U z score) (p = 0.001, r = -0.4) with moderate correlation and negative direction.

Conclusion: There is a relationship between the level of adequacy of energy, protein and fat with the nutritional status of children with intellectual disabilities and there is no relationship between the level of adequacy of carbohydrates, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C and physical activity with the nutritional status of children with intellectual disabilities in the City Semarang.

 

Keywords: nutritional intake, physical activity, nutritional status, intellectual disability

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Keywords: Asupan Gizi; Aktivitas Fisik; Status Gizi; Disabilitas Intelektual

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