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Tingkat Kecemasan (State-Trait Anxiety) Masyarakat dalam Menghadapi Pandemi COVID-19 di Kota Semarang

*Tri Rosa Setyananda  -  Bagian Promosi Kesehatan dan Ilmu Perilaku, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Ratih Indraswari  -  Bagian Promosi Kesehatan dan Ilmu Perilaku, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Priyadi Nugraha Prabamurti  -  Bagian Promosi Kesehatan dan Ilmu Perilaku, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright 2021 MEDIA KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT INDONESIA under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Kota Semarang merupakan wilayah zona merah dan menempati posisi pertama kasus COVID-19 tertinggi di Jawa Tengah. Keadaan tersebut dapat mempengaruhi kondisi kesehatan mental masyarakat, salah satunya yaitu kecemasan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat kecemasan masyarakat terhadap pandemi COVID-19 di Kota Semarang.

Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Populasi penelitian berjumlah 1.303.862 dengan sampel berjumlah 407 responden. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik non probabillity sampling yaitu consecutive sampling. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan adalah State-Trait Anxiety Inventory dari Charles D. Spielberger. Pengumpulan data menggunakan google form yang dibagikan melalui berbagai media sosial. Variabel bebas penelitian yaitu umur, jenis kelamin, pendidikan, pekerjaan, pendapatan, status perkawinan, persepsi, dan defence mechanism. Variabel terikat yaitu tingkat kecemasan. Uji statistik yang digunakan untuk analisis univariat adalah distribusi frekuensi serta analisis bivariat menggunakan uji chi-square. Penelitian ini telah mendapatkan persetujuan oleh Komisi Etik Penelitian Kesehatan FKM Undip dengan nomor 260/EA/KEPK-FKM/2020.

Hasil: Hasil penelitian ini yaitu pada state anxiety level (66,8%) responden berada pada tingkat sedang, (27,3%) responden berada pada tingkat ringan, serta (5,9%) responden berada pada tingkat berat. Hasil trait anxiety level menunjukkan (67,3%) responden berada pada tingkat sedang, (27,3%) responden pada tingkat ringan, serta (5,4%) responden berada pada tingkat berat. Faktor yang berhubungan dengan state anxiety level pandemi COVID-19 adalah umur (p-value =0,018), jenis kelamin (p-value =0,013), pekerjaan (p-value =0,003), status perkawinan (p-value =0,006), pendapatan (p-value=0,032), persepsi (p=0,021), dan defence mechanism (p-value=0,000). Faktor yang berhubungan dengan trait anxiety level pandemi COVID-19 adalah umur (p-value =0,006), pekerjaan (p-value =0,000), status perkawinan (p-value =0,003), pendapatan (p-value =0,001), dan defence mechanism (p-value =0,000).

Simpulan:  State anxiety dan trait anxiety menunjukkan bahwa masyarakat di Kota Semarang mengalami tingkat kecemasan sedang terhadap COVID-19. Hasil uji chi-square menunjukkan bahwa faktor yang berhubungan dengan state anxiety adalah umur, jenis kelamin, pekerjaan, status perkawinan, pendapatan, persepsi. Tidak ada hubungan antara state anxiety dengan pendidikan. Faktor yang berhubungan dengan trait anxiety adalah umur, pekerjaan, status perkawinan, pendapatan. Tidak ada hubungan antara trait anxiety dengan jenis kelamin, dan pendidikan. Terdapat hubungan antara state-trait anxiety dengan defence mechanism.

Kata kunci: Tingkat Kecemasan, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Pandemi COVID-19, Kesehatan Mental, Mekanisme Pertahanan

 

ABSTRACT

Title: The Anxiety Level (State-Trait Anxiety) towards COVID-19 Pandemic in the Semarang City

Background: Semarang city is a red zone area and occupies the 1st position as the most amount of COVID-19 case in Central Java. The COVID-19 pandemic has bad impacts on the mental condition to the people, one of those mental condition is anxiety. Anxiety attack all levels of society. This study has purpose to measure the level anxiety of society towards the COVID-19 pandemic in Semarang City.

Method: This study using observasional research design with cross sectional approach. The research targets 1.303.862 which is takes sample from 407 respondents. Sampling was carried out using the non probability sampling technique, consecutive sampling technique that using google form and spread it to the random people in social media. The questionnaire used was the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory from Charles D. Spielberger. Independent variable is age, gender, education, occupation, income, marital status, perception, defence mechanism. Dependent variable is anxiety level.  Univariat analysis using frequency distribution. Bivariate analysis using Chi-Square. This research has been approved by Health Research Ethics Committee Faculty of Public Health Diponegoro University which is contained in ethical approval number 260/EA/KEPK-FKM/2020.

Result: The results showed that the state anxiety level shows (66.8%) respondents are at the medium level, (27.3%) respondents are at the mild level, (5.9%) the respondents are at the critical level. The results trait anxiety levels indicate that (67.3%) respondents are at medium level, (27.3%) respondents are at mild level, (5.4%) respondents are at critical level. Factors which are related between state anxiety of the COVID-19 pandemic included age (p-value = 0.018), gender (p-value = 0.013) occupation (p-value = 0.003) marital status (p-value = 0.006), income (p-value = 0.032), and defense mechanisms (p-value = 0.000). Factors which are related between trait anxiety level of the COVID-19 pandemic included other age (p-value = 0.006), occupation (p-value = 0.000), marital status (p-value = 0.003), income (p-value = 0.001), and defense mechanisms (p-value = 0.000).

Conclusion: The level of state trait anxiety of public in the Semarang city is mostly at the medium level. The result of the chi-square test showed that factors which are related between state anxiety included age, gender, occupation, marital status, income, and perception. There is no relation between the anxiety level and education. Factors which are related between trait anxiety included age, occupation, marital status, and income. There is no relation between the trait anxiety level with gender, education, and perception. There is a relation between state-trait anxiety level and defence mechanism.

Keywords: Anxiety Level, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, COVID-19 Pandemic, Mental Health, Defence Mechanism

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Keywords: Tingkat Kecemasan, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Pandemi COVID-19, Kesehatan Mental, Mekanisme Pertahanan

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