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Relasi Sosial-Ekonomi dan Kekuasaan antara Rentenir dan Pedagang Pasar Tradisional di Jawa Tengah

*Sabil Mokodenseho orcid scopus publons  -  Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah, Indonesia
Tri Lestari Puspitaningrum  -  Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 Politika: Jurnal Ilmu Politik under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/.

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Abstract

Beranjak dari maraknya praktik rentenir di pasar-pasar tradisional yang ada di Jawa Tengah membuat penelitian ini menjadi penting. Permasalahannya adalah terjadi relasi antara rentenir dan pedagang pasar sehingga praktik tersebut sulit dihentikan. Untuk itu, penelitian ini ingin mengetahui pola relasi yang terbangun antara pedagang dan rentenir sebagai aktor institusi finansial informal. Jenis penelitian kualitatif dengan metode studi kasus digunakan, sedangkan informan penelitian bergerak mengikuti prinsip snowball effect. Dengan menggunakan konsep interdependensi aktor (actor interdependence), kepercayaan informal (informal trust), dan institusi informal (informal institutions) menunjukkan bahwa rentenir dan pedagang berdasarkan daerah asal mereka, memiliki perbedaan sebagai pendatang dan pribumi. Rentenir dan pedagang berkolaborasi membentuk pola relasi interdependensi antar aktor informal di satu arena (pasar tradisonal). Semakin besar pendapatan retribusi pasar, maka semakin ramai pasar dan semakin banyak pedagang dan rentenir, sebaliknya jumlah retribusi pasar berbanding lurus dengan tingkat keramaian, jumlah pedagang dan rentenir. Kepercayaan informal muncul pada kedua aktor karena institusi formal tidak mampu memberikan kemudahan bagi pedagang dalam mengakses modal. Walaupun rentenir menetapkan suku bunga yang cukup tinggi, akan tetapi kemudahan yang diberikan menjadikan praktik ini tetap eksis.  

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Keywords: kekuasaan; pedagang; pasar; pola relasi; rentenir; sosial-ekonomi

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