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Dampak Aglomerasi Spasial pada Penanaman Modal Asing (PMA) di Indonesia

*Mazmur Binsar Hamonangan Damanik orcid  -  Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
Widyono Soetjipto  -  Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia

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Abstract
Kebijakan pemerintah membangun kawasan dan pemberian status kawasan khusus pada daerah tertentu seperti Kawasan Ekonomi Khusus, Free Trade Zone, dan Kawasan Strategis Nasional untuk menarik investasi, merupakan bentuk aglomerasi spasial ekonomi di Indonesia. Eksternalitas positif dari aglomerasi tersebut dapat menghasilkan efisiensi biaya-biaya akuisisi usaha, faktor produksi, dan informasi. Oleh karena itu, aglomerasi dapat menarik pertumbuhan realisasi investasi penanaman modal asing (PMA). Penelitian ini mengukur dampak aglomerasi akibat kebijakan pemerintah dalam menarik PMA yang didasarkan atas tipe sumber dana investasi (asing atau lokal) serta dikontrol oleh beberapa faktor determinan investasi lainnya. Menggunakan regresi data panel dari 34 provinsi di Indonesia dengan periode waktu 2013–2019, hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aglomerasi investasi asing berdampak positif bagi PMA. Dengan dilakukannya aglomerasi maka tingkat PMA di suatu daerah akan meningkat.
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Keywords: Aglomerasi, Spasial, PMA, Ekspor, Pertumbuhan Ekonomi

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