skip to main content

PROSES TOREFAKSI TANDAN KOSONG KELAPA SAWIT UNTUK KANDUNGAN HEMISELULOSA DAN UJI KEMAMPUAN PENYERAPAN AIR

*Anton Irawan  -  Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University, Banten, Indonesia
Tubagus Riadz  -  Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University, Banten, Indonesia
Nurmalisa Nurmalisa  -  Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University, Banten, Indonesia

Citation Format:
Abstract

EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES TORREFACTION FOR HEMICELLULOCE CONTENT ANDWATER ABSORPTION TEST. Biomass is organic material resulting from the process ofphotosynthesis. Biomass can be produced directly as product or waste from the processing ofagricultural or plantation. Indonesia is a country that produces biomass in very large quantities. Oneof the largest biomass resulting from the proceessing of palm oil is oil palm empty fruit bunches(EFB). Basically, the EFB has a low energy content and easily absorbs water. With higher productionof palm oil, the EFB has potential as a good quality fuel and need early treatment to maintain thequality of the EFB. Torrefaction was one of thermal treatments with process temperature around200-350 ° C in the absence oxygen condition. By torrefaction, the EFB has a high energy content anddecrease the water absorption. With low water absorption, EFB will have benefit in the storage thathas high humidity such as Indonesia. The variables that varied for EFB torrefaction was thetemperature (250-350 ° C) and the holding time (15-60 minutes) to produce the high quality solid fuelfrom EFB. Analysis product in this study was proximate analysis, water absorption, and hemicelluloseand caloric value. The results showed that the higher temperature and longer time torrefaction hadhigher calorific value, the hemicellulose content decreased thereby increasing hydrophobicity. Also,the torrefaction EFB can increase the calorific value around 30%.

 

Keywords: calorific value; empty fruit bunches (EFB); hemicellulose; hydrophobic; torrefaction

 

Abstrak

Biomassa merupakan material organik yang dihasilkan dari proses fotosintesis. Biomassa dapatdihasilkan secara langsung sebagai produk atau limbah dari pengolahan hasil pertanian atauperkebunan. Indonesia merupakan negara kaya akan biomasa dengan jumlah yang melimpah. Salahsatu biomassa dengan jumlah yang melimpah adalah limbah yang dihasilkan dari pengolahan bijikelapa sawit antara lain tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS). Pada dasarnya, TKKS memilikikandungan energi rendah serta mudah menyerap air. Dengan jumlah biomassa TKKS melimpahmaka perlu suatu metode untuk meningkatkan kualitas dari TKKS dengan melakukan pengolahanawal. Torefaksi merupakan salah satu metode pengolahan awal untuk peningkatan kualitas biomassadengan temperatur proses sekitar 200-350 o C tanpa adanya oksigen. Setelah mengalami prosestorefaksi maka TKKS akan memiliki kandungan energi tinggi serta kemampuan menyerap air rendah.Dengan kemampuan menyerap air rendah maka TKKS dapat disimpan dalam rentang waktu lamapada kondisi kelembaban tinggi seperti Indonesia. Adapun variasi dalam penelitian ini yaitutemperatur antara 250-350 o C serta waktu tahan torefaksi antara 15-60 menit. Adapun analisa produkTKKS torefaksi yaitu analisa proksimat, kemampuan menyerap air, kandungan hemiselulosa dannilai kalor. Pada percobaan ini memperlihatkan bahwa pada temperatur torefaksi lebih tinggi sertawaktu tahan torefaksi yang lama akan meningkatkan kandungan energi serta menurunkankemampuan menyerap air tapi menghilangkan massa TKKS lebih banyak. Pada percobaan inikandungan energi dari TKKS dapat meningkat sekitar 30%Kata kunci: nilai kalor; TKKS;hemiselulosa; hidropobik; torefaksi

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Torrefaction,Hemicellulose, Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB), Calorific Value, Hydrophobic

Article Metrics:

  1. Basu, P., (2013), Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and
  2. Torrefaction-Practical Design and Theory, Second
  3. Edition, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 87-145
  4. Bergman, P.C.A., (2005), Combined Torrefaction and
  5. Pelletisation, ECN Report, ECN-C-05-073
  6. Chen, W.H. and Kuo, P.C., (2010), A study on
  7. torrefaction of various biomass materials and its
  8. impact on lignocellulosic structure simulated by a
  9. thermogravimetry, Energy, 35, pp. 2580-2586
  10. Chen, W.H. and Kuo, P.C., (2011), Torrefaction and
  11. Co-torrefaction Characterization of Hemicellulose,
  12. Cellulose and Lignin As Well As Torefaction of Some
  13. Basic Constituen in Biomass, Energy, 36, pp. 803-
  14. Chen, W.H., Du, S.W., Tsai, C.H., and Wang, Z.Y.,
  15. (2012), Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to
  16. evaluate their utility in blast furnaces, Bioresource
  17. Technology, 111, pp. 433-438
  18. Chen, W.H., Peng, P., and Bi, X.T., (2015), A state-
  19. of-the-art review of biomass torrefaction ,densification
  20. and applications, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
  21. Reviews, 44, pp. 847-866
  22. Chew, J.J. and Doshi, V., (2011), Recent advances in
  23. biomass pretreatment-Torrefaction fundamentals and
  24. technology, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
  25. Reviews, 15, pp. 4212–4222
  26. Deutmeyer, M., (2012), Torrefaction Technologies
  27. and Initiatives for Improving Biomass Feedstock
  28. Specifications: Possible Effect of Torrefaction on
  29. Biomass Trade, IEA Bioenergy, Task 40
  30. Gil, M.V., Garcia, R., Pevida, C., and Rubiera, F.,
  31. (2015), Grindability and combustion behavior of coal
  32. and torrefied biomass blends, Bioresource
  33. Technology, 191, pp. 205-212
  34. Irawan, A., Setiani, F., dan Ichsan, P.W., (2014),
  35. Pengaruh Temperatur dan Waktu Tahan Proses
  36. Torefaksi Terhadap Kualitas Produk Torefaksi Kulit
  37. Durian, Prosiding Seminar Integrasi Proses, ISSN
  38. -6756
  39. Li, H., Liu, X., Legros, R., Bi, X.T., Lim, C.J., and
  40. Sokhansanj, S., (2012), Torrefaction of sawdust in a
  41. fluidized bed reactor, Bioresource Technology,103,
  42. pp. 453-8
  43. Li, H., Liu, X., Legros, R., Bi, X.T., Lim, C.J., and
  44. Sokhansanj, S., (2012). Pelletization of torrefiedsawdust and properties of torrefied pellets, Applied
  45. Energy, 93, pp. 680-685
  46. Lu, K.M., Lee, W.J., Chen, W.H., Liu, S.H., and
  47. Lin,T.C., (2012), Torrefaction and lowtemperature
  48. carbonization of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in
  49. nitrogen and air atmospheres, Bioresource
  50. Technology, 123, pp. 98-105
  51. Park, S.W., Jang, C.H., Baek, K.R., and Yang, J.K.,
  52. (2012), Torrefaction and low-temperature
  53. carbonization of woody biomass: Evaluation of fuel
  54. characteristics of the products, Energy,45, pp. 676-
  55. Pimchuai, A., Dutta, A., and Basu, P., (2010),
  56. Torrefaction of agriculture residue to enhance
  57. combustible properties, Energy Fuels, 24, pp. 4638-
  58. Sabil, K.M., Aziz, M.A, Lal, B., and Uemura, Y.,
  59. (2013), Effects of torrefaction on the physiochemical
  60. properties of oil palm empty fruit bunches, mesocarp
  61. fiber and kernel shell, Biomass and Bioenergy, 56, pp
  62. -360
  63. Strege, J., Swanson, M., Folkedahl, B., Stanslowski,
  64. J., and Laumb, J., (2011), Fischer–Tropsch catalyst
  65. testing in a continuous bench-scale coal gasification
  66. system, Fuel ProcessTechnol, 92, pp. 757-63
  67. Uemura, Y., Omar, W. N., Tsutsui, T., and Yusuf, S
  68. B., (2011), Torrefaction of Oil Palm Wastes, Fuel, 90,
  69. pp. 2585-2591
  70. Van der Stelt, M.J.C., Gerhauser, H., Kiel, J.H.A., and
  71. Ptasinsiki, K.J., (2011), Biomass upgrading by
  72. torrefaction for the production of biofuels: A review,
  73. Biomass and Bioenergy Journal, 35 , pp. 3748-3762

Last update: 2021-06-18 08:16:09

  1. Torrefaction of Durian peel and bagasse for bio-briquette as an alternative solid fuel

    S Haryati, Rahmatullah, R W Putri. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 127 , 2018. doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/334/1/012008

Last update: 2021-06-18 08:16:09

No citation recorded.