Karakteristik Terumbu Karang di Zona Pemanfaatan Wisata Taman Nasional Karimunjawa (Coral Reef Characteristic of Tourism Zone, Karimunjawa National Park)

*Rohmani Sulisyati  -  Balai Taman Nasional Karimunjawa, Indonesia
Erny Poedjirahajoe  -  Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gajah Mada, Indonesia
Lies Rahayu WF  -  Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gajah Mada
Chafid Fandeli  -  Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gajah Mada, Indonesia
Published: 2 Sep 2014.
Open Access

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Abstract

Karakteristik terumbu karang di suatu lokasi wisata perlu diketahui agar terumbu karang tetap dapat melangsungkan fungsinya dengan optimal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik terumbu karang di zona pemanfaatan wisata Taman Nasional Karimunjawa. Dilakukan pada bulan November 2013 pada 14 lokasi. Pengamatan terumbu karang dengan metode line intercept transect untuk melihat substrat dasar berdasar lifeform. Transek dilakukan pada dua kedalaman yaitu 3 meter dan 6–8 m untuk mewakili perairan dangkal dan dalam. Analisis kualitatif dilakukan untuk melihat tutupan karang keras serta pengukuran nilai indeks keanekaragaman, keseragaman dan dominasi. Hasil pengukuran kondisi fisik perairan termasuk dalam perairan produktif yang dapat menunjang kehidupan organisme di dalamnya. Kondisi terumbu karang pada daerah dangkal ditemukan 15 famili, 41 genus dan 104 species karang. Persentase tutupan karang keras termasuk kategori sedang – sangat baik. Keanekaragaman jenis yang melimpah sedang hingga tinggi dengan kondisi komunitas antara labil hingga stabil dan hampir tidak ditemukan dominasi jenis tertentu. Pada daerah dalam terdapat 15 famili, 39 genus dan 99 species. Tutupan karang keras sedang – baik, dengan keanekaragaman jenis melimpah tinggi dan stabil serta tidak ada jenis yang dominan. Genus Acropora dan Porites dapat ditemui pada seluruh lokasi. Karakteristik terumbu karang berkaitan dengan letak keberadaan pulau, terumbu karang pada pulau terlindung cenderung mempunyai komunitas yang stabil.

Kata kunci: terumbu karang, tutupan karang keras, lifeform

Coral  reef characteristic in the recreational area should be known to establish the function optimally. This study aims to quantify the characteristic of coral reef throughout tourism utilization zone of Karimunjawa National Park. Surveys were conducted  during November 2013 at 14 locations. Substrate cover was collected using line intercept transect methods. Transects were deployed at two depth i.e 3 meters and 6–8 meters to represent the shallow and the deep water. Qualitative analysis were done to measure the hard coral cover and diversity index, evenness index and domination. The result showed that physical condition of aquatic environment was productive water that can support living organisms. For shallow water there were 15 families, 41 generas and 104 species of hard coral. Hard  coral cover ranged from 36,5-82% and it was categorized as fair–excellent. Species abundance is moderate to high which a condition of community between unstable to stable and hardly found dominance of a specific species. While the deep water there were 15 families, 39 generas and 99 species corals. Hard coral cover ranged from 39,5-67,9% it was categorized as fair into good, with high species diversity and abundance of stable and there is no dominant species. Acropora and Porites genus can be found in all locations. Coral reef characteristic associated with the location where the island, the protected island tend to have stable community.

Keywords: coral reef, hard coral cover, lifeform

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