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Characteristics of Diatoms in Strait of Rupat Riau (Karakteristik Diatom di Selat Rupat Riau)

1INSTITUT PERTANIAN BOGOR, Indonesia

2Departemen Ilmu dan Teknolologi Kelautan FPIK IPB, Indonesia

Received: 29 Oct 2015; Published: 4 Dec 2015.

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Abstract

Selat Rupat merupakan selat kecil yang berdekatan dengan Selat Malaka yang memiliki berbagai macam aktivitas antropogenik. Tekanan dari aktivitas tersebut dapat menyebabkan perubahan kondisi lingkungan perairan sehingga dapat berpengaruh pada organisme laut khususnya kelimpahan diatom. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis karakteristik lingkungan perairan yang memengaruhi kelimpahan diatom di permukaan Perairan Selat Rupat. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Selat Rupat Riau dengan 5 stasiun yang berbeda karakteristik lingkungannya pada saat pasang dan surut. Parameter yang diukur, yaitu: nitrat, fosfat, silikat, ammonia, intensitas cahaya, salinitas, Pb, minyak dan lemak, serta kelimpahan jenis diatom. Analisis komponen utama (PCA) digunakan untuk menganalisis keterkaitan parameter fisika kimia perairan dengan kelimpahan diatom. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 11 jenis diatom yang ditemukan selama penelitian.  Kelimpahan diatom yang memiliki nilai tertinggi saat pasang dan surut adalah Coscinodiscus (10693-197160 sel.m-3 saat pasang dan 8020-186466 sel.m-3 saat surut) dan Skeletonema (40769-106266 selm-3 saat pasang dan 30744-145029 sel.m-3 saat surut). Kandungan NO3 (0.081-0.142 mg.L-1 saat pasang dan 0.090-0.235 mg.L-1 saat surut), SiO2 (0.054-0.075 mg.L-1 saat pasang dan 0.056-0.120 mg.L-1 saat surut), arus (0.3-0.5 m.det-1 saat pasang dan 0.4-0.6 m.det-1 saat surut), dan intensitas cahaya (37-113 lx saat pasang dan 37-233 lx saat surut). Parameter fisika kimia perairan tersebut, memiliki pengaruh yang besar terhadap kelimpahan diatom. Aktivitas antropogenik memengaruhi kelimpahan diatom yang berdampak pada rantai makanan di ekosistem Perairan Selat Rupat sehingga perairan tersebut perlu dikelola dengan baik agar keseimbangan ekosistem perairan tetap terjaga.

Kata kunci: antropogenik, diatom, nutrien, pasang surut, Selat Rupat

Rupat Strait is one of small strait in Malacca Strait, which has a wide range of anthropogenic activities. The pressure of anthropogenic activities in Rupat Strait Riau could changed the conditions of aquatic environment which was took effects on marine organisms including an abundance of diatoms. This research was aimed to analyze the factors of physic and chemical of waters that affected an abundance of diatom on surface of water in Rupat Strait Riau. This research was conducted in Rupat Strait Riau at 5 stations with different environment characteristics during high and low tide. The measured parameters, consist of nitrate, phosphate, silicate, ammonia, light intensity, salinity, Pb, oils and fats, and then the abundance of diatoms. Principal component analysis (PCA) has used to analyze relations of physic and chemical of waters with abundance of diatoms. The study found 11 genus diatoms which has the highest value at high tide and low tide is Coscinodiscus, which ranged 10.693-197.160 sel.m-3 at high tide and 8.020-186.466 sel.m-3 at low tide, and Skeletonema (40.769-106.266 sel.m-3 at high tide and 30.744-145.029 sel.m-3 at low tide). The contents of NO3 ranged among (0.081–0.142 mg.L-1 at high tide and 0.090-0.235 mgL-1 at low tide), SiO2 ranged (0.054–0.075 mg.L-1 at high tide and from 0.056–0.120 mg.L-1 at low tide, the current ranged (0.3-0.5 m.s-1 at high tide and 0.4-0.6 m.s-1 at low tide), and light intensity ranged (37-113 lx at high tide and 37-233 lx at low tide). Those parameters of physics and chemical had contributions to an abundance of diatoms, but the tidal had no big effects to an abundance of diatoms. The anthropogenic activities had the effects to an abundance of diatoms that have impact on the food chain in aquatic ecosystem at Rupat Strait, so it needs to be managed well for maintain the balancing of aquatic ecosystem.

 

Keywords: antropogenic, diatom, nutrient, tidal, Selat Rupat


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