The Development of A Flexible Battery by Using A Stainless Mesh Anode

Kanawe Iwai  -  Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Japan
Teppei Tamura  -  Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Japan
Dang-Trang Nguyen  -  Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Japan
*Kozo Taguchi  -  Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Japan
Received: 11 Sep 2019; Revised: 20 Oct 2019; Accepted: 25 Oct 2019; Published: 27 Oct 2019; Available online: 30 Oct 2019.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Renewable Energy Development

Citation Format:
Cover Image
Article Info
Section: Original Research Article
Language: EN
Full Text:
Statistics: 411 169
We have developed a compact and flexible battery, which composes three parts: (1) an anode electrode made for stainless mesh which was heat-treated for 30 min at 500℃ with coated carbon nanotube (CNT), (2) a piece of paper filter-based membrane with the pore size of 0.025 µm and the thickness of 100 µm, and (3) a cathode electrode coated potassium ferricyanide. The battery can generate electricity activated by adding  sodium chloride (NaCl) solution to the anode. The battery has a NaCl concentration-dependence characteristic. In this research, we tested 0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10% NaCl solution, respectively. At 3% NaCl concentration, the maximum power density and current density of 42.3 µW/cm2 and 228 µA/cm2 were obtained, respectively. After the experiments, there was a blue material encountered on the anode surface. By using EDS to analyze the blue material, it could be confirmed that the blue material was ferric ferrocyanide (Prussian blue). The operation principle of this battery was proposed as follows. First, on the anode side, the injected sodium chloride solution oxidizes the stainless mesh surface, then ferric ions and electrons are released. Second, on the cathode side, ferricyanide ions are reduced to ferrocyanide ions by electrons coming from the anode through the external circuit. Simultaneously, ferric ions react with ferrocyanide ions to produce Prussian blue and generate more electrons. This battery can be potentially utilized for applications that require on-demand, disposable, and flexible characteristics. ©2019. CBIORE-IJRED. All rights reserved
flexible; stainless mesh; NaCl; Prussian blue; potassium ferricyanide

Article Metrics:

  1. Barker, R., Al Shaaili, I., De Motte, R. A., Burkle, D., Charpentier, T., Vargas, S. M., & Neville, A. (2019). Iron carbonate formation kinetics onto corroding and pre-filmed carbon steel surfaces in carbon dioxide corrosion environments. Applied Surface Science, 469, 135–145.
  2. Cáceres, L., Vargas, T., & Herrera, L. (2009). Influence of pitting and iron oxide formation during corrosion of carbon steel in unbuffered NaCl solutions. Corrosion Science, 51(5), 971–978.
  3. Cui, L. F., Hu, L., Choi, J. W., & Cui, Y. (2010). Light-weight free-standing carbon nanotube-silicon films for anodes of lithium ion batteries. ACS Nano, 4(7), 3671–3678.
  4. Guo, S., Wang, H., & Han, E. H. (2018). Computational evaluation of the influence of various uniaxial load levels on pit growth of stainless steel under mechanoelectrochemical interactions. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 165(9), 515–523.
  5. Kocijan, A., Milosev, I., & Pihlar, B. (2003). The influence of complexing agent and proteins on the corrosion of stainless steels and their metal components. Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine, 14(1), 69–77. Retrieved from
  6. Kwok, C. T., Cheng, F. T., & Man, H. C. (2000). Synergistic effect of cavitation erosion and corrosion of various engineering alloys in 3.5% NaCl solution. Materials Science and Engineering A, 290(1–2), 145–154.
  7. Long, B., Yang, H., Wang, F., Mao, Y., Balogun, M. S., Song, S., & Tong, Y. (2018). Chemically-modified stainless steel mesh derived substrate-free iron-based composite as anode materials for affordable flexible energy storage devices. Electrochimica Acta, 284, 271–278.
  8. Omanovic, S., & Roscoe, S. G. (1999). Electrochemical studies of the adsorption behavior of bovine serum albumin on stainless steel. Langmuir, 15(23), 8315–8321.
  9. Scotto, V., Cintio, R. Di, & Marcenaro, G. (1985). The influence of marine aerobic microbial film on stainless steel corrosion behaviour. Corrosion Science, 25(3), 185–194.
  10. Shinata, Y., Takahashi, F., & Hashiura, K. (1987). NaCl-induced hot corrosion of stainless steels. Materials Science and Engineering, 87(C), 399–405.
  11. Sousa, S. R., & Barbosa, M. A. (1991). Electrochemistry of AISI 316L stainless steel in calcium phosphate and protein solutions. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 2(1), 19–26.
  12. Tang, X., Ma, C., Zhou, X., Lyu, X., Li, Q., & Li, Y. (2019). Atmospheric corrosion local electrochemical response to a dynamic saline droplet on pure Iron. Electrochemistry Communications, 101, 28–34.
  13. Tsaur, C. C., Rock, J. C., Wang, C. J., & Su, Y. H. (2005). The hot corrosion of 310 stainless steel with pre-coated NaCl/Na 2so4 mixtures at 750°C. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 89(2–3), 445–453.
  14. Wei, L., Liu, Y., Li, Q., & Cheng, Y. F. (2019). Effect of roughness on general corrosion and pitting of (FeCoCrNi)0.89(WC)0.11 high-entropy alloy composite in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Corrosion Science, 146, 44–57.