Budidaya Kopi Rakyat dengan Pengeelolaan Bahan Organik Mengurangi Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca dan Cadangan Karbon

*Hesti Yulianingrum  -  Balai Penelitian Lingkungan Pertanian, Indonesia
Ika Ferry Yunianti  -  Balai Penelitian Lingkungan Pertanian, Indonesia
Maria Angelina Nai Ulu  -  Dinas Pertanian Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur, Jalan Polisi Militer 7A Kupang Nusa Tenggara Timur Indonesia, Indonesia
Received: 14 Nov 2019; Published: 29 Apr 2020.
Open Access
Citation Format:
Abstract

Peningkatan konsentrasi gas rumah kaca (GRK) akibat dari kegiatan pertanian akan menyebabkan perubahan iklim. Dampak perubahan iklim akan mengancam produktivitas tanaman kopi. Upaya mitigasi GRK perlu dilakukan untuk mencegah penuruan produktvitas kopi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui emisi GRK dan cadangan karbon dari perbedaan jenis pupuk yang diberikan (sistem organik dan konvensional)  di perkebunan kopi rakyat di Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur. Penelitian dilaksanakan  pada lahan perkebunan kopi rakyat di Desa Radabata, Kecamatan Golewa, Kabupaten Ngada, Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT). Kegiatan penelitian dilaksanakan pada dua lokasi dengan sistem budidaya konvensional (tanpa penambahan bahan organik) dan organik (penambahan bahan organik). Kegiatan yang dilakukan adalah pengukuran gas rumah kaca (GRK) serta cadangan karbon. PengukuranGRK menggunakan metode sungkup tertutup dengan 4 titik pengambilan sampel. Perhitungan cadangan karbon dengan pengambilan sampel biomassa kering denga metode RaCSA (Rapid Carbon Stock’s Assesment). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perkebunan kopi mampu menurunkan GWP sebesar 24,77 % dibandingkan pada sistem konvensional. Perkebunan kopi rakyat dengan sistem konvensional menghasilkan cadangan karbon dan serapan karbon yang lebih besar dibandingkan dengan sistem organik. Keragaman jenis tanaman penaung, umur tanaman dan sistem budidaya sangat mempengaruh cadangan karbon yang dihasilkan pada suatu lahan. Pengelolaan perkebunan secara organik dengan tanaman tahunan sebagai penaung (Agrogorestri) merupakan kegiatan ramah lingkungan sebagai upaya mitigasi gas rumah kaca.

Keywords: Emisi GRK, tanaman kopi, cadanngan karbon, mitigasi, agroforestri

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