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Kajian Kelimpahan Mikroplastik di Biota Perairan

Jurusan Teknik Lingkungan, Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan, Institut Adhi Tama Surabaya, Indonesia

Received: 16 Mar 2021; Revised: 11 Aug 2021; Accepted: 10 Sep 2021; Available online: 13 Oct 2021; Published: 1 Nov 2021.
Editor(s): H Hadiyanto

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Abstract

Sampah plastik dapat terdegradasi menjadi mikroplastik (MP) dan nanoplastik (NP) melalui proses fisik, kimia, dan biologis. MP didefinisikan sebagai partikel plastik kecil berukuran < 5 mm. MP saat ini telah ditemukan di tubuh biota perairan, baik perairan permukaan maupun perairan laut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji MP pada biota perairan. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah studi literatur terhadap artikel publikasi 10 tahun terakhir. Kajian dilakukan terhadap kelimpahan, ukuran, bentuk, warna, dan komposisi MP pada biota perairan permukaan dan laut. Review dilakukan terhadap penelitian di Indonesia dan berbagai wilayah di negara lain. Beberapa metode pengambilan sampel biota perairan yang digunakan dalam penelitian terdahulu yaitu menggunakan trawl atau pukat dasar (jaring polietilen), jaring pukat pantai (10 m x 1,5 m; ukuran mata jaring: 8 mm). Identifikasi MP pada saluran pencernakan biota ikan dilakukan menggunakan larutan KOH 10% selama 24 jam pada suhu 60°C, selanjutnya dilakukan penyaringan dengan kertas saring Whatman. Selanjutnya, proses identifikasi menggunakan mikroskop okuler dan FTIR untuk menentukan ukuran, bentuk, dan jenis polimer. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa kelimpahan MP terbanyak pada biota perairan masing-masing yaitu 468 partikel MP/individu pada spesies Ikan Sapu-Sapu (Hypostomus plecostomus) di perairan sungai; 18 partikel MP/individu pada Ikan Nila Hitam (Oreochromis niloticus) di perairan payau; 1,4 – 7 partikel MP/individu pada spesies Tiram (Saccostrea cucullata) di perairan muara; 22,21 ± 1,7 partikel MP/individu pada spesies Ikan Thryssa kammalensis di perairan teluk; 2,7 ± 0,10 partikel MP/individu pada spesies Ikan Zeus faber di perairan selat; dan 22,3 partikel MP/individu pada Diadema sp. (Bulu babi) di perairan laut. MP yang dominan pada biota perairan adalah berukuran 20 μm – 50 μm, berbentuk fiber, dan berwarna hitam. Polyethylene (PE) ditemukan dominan pada biota perairan permukaan, serta polyprophylene (PP) dan polyethylene (PE) pada biota perairan laut.

ABSTRACT

Plastic wastes could be degraded into microplastic (MP) and nanoplastic (NP) through physical, chemical, and biological processes. MP was defined as the small particle of plastic with the size of < 5 mm. Currently, MP has been found in the body of aquatic biota both in the surface and sea water biota. This research aimed to investigate the microplastic content in aquatic biota. The study was conducted through literature review of the last 10 year published articles. The previous studies were reviewed in terms of abundance, size, shape, colour, and polymer type of MP in the aquatic biota in Indonesia and areas of other countries. Sampling of aquatic biota in the previous studies was conducted in several methods using trawling or bottom trawl (polyethylene net), beach trawl net (10 m x 1.5 m; mesh size: 8 mm). Identification of MP in the digestive tract of fish was conducted using 10% KOH solution for 24 hours at a temperature of 60°C, then was filtered using Whatman filter paper. Next, the identification process used an ocular microscope and FTIR to determine the polymer. The result demonstrated that the highest number of MP abundance was 468 MP particles/individual in the cattle fish (Hypostomus plecostomus) species in the river water; 18 MP particles/individual in the black nile fish (Oreochromis niloticus) species in the brackish water; 1.4 – 7 MP particles/individual in the oyster (Saccostrea cucullata) species in the estuary water; 22.21 ± 1.7 MP particles/individual in the Thryssa kammalensis fish species in the gulf water; 2.7 ± 0.10 MP particles/individual in the Zeus faber fish species in the strait water; and 22.3 MP particles/individual in the Diadema sp. (sea urchin) in the sea water. The most dominant MP size, shape, and colour in the aquatic biota was 20 μm – 50 μm, fiber, and black. Polyethylene (PE) was dominant in the surface water biota, whereas, polyprophylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) in the sea water biota.

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Keywords: Abundance;vAquatic biota; Colour; Microplastic; Polymer type; Shape; Size

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