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Quality Indeks dan Konsentrasi Logam Berat dalam Perairan dan Sedimen di Perairan Kota Makassar

1Program Studi Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Muhammadiyah Palopo, Indonesia

2Program Studi Managemen Sumberdaya Perairan, Universitas Hasanuddin, Indonesia

Received: 10 Dec 2021; Revised: 22 Dec 2021; Accepted: 5 Jan 2022; Available online: 11 Jan 2022; Published: 6 Apr 2022.
Editor(s): H Hadiyanto

Citation Format:
Abstract

Kota Makassar merupakan pusat kota di Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan yang memiliki aktifitas wilayah pesisir, seperti pemanfataan industri, pariwisata, transportasi laut serta memiliki dua sungai besar yang muara di perairan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui konsentrasilogam berat dalam air dan sedimen serta menentukan status mutunya. Pengamatan dilakukan pada 10 lokasi strategis sumber pencemar seperti pabrik, hotel, muara sungai serta pelabuhan dengan mengambil sampel air dan sedimen dan selanjutnya dianalisis di laboratorium untuk logam berat Cd, Cr, Hg, Zn, Cu dan Pb. Statistik deskriptif digunakan untuk menganalisis data yang ada. Metode Indeks Pencemar dan Storet (Storage and Retrieval) digunakan untuk menentukan status mutu air dan sedimen dari logam berat untuk biota laut. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan perairan Kota Makassar tergolong dalam kategori “Cemar Ringan” berdasarkan hasil perhitungan indeks Pencemar sedangkan status mutu perairan tergolong “Cemar Berat”. Parameter logam berat di kolom perairan yang melampaui baku mutu adalah Krom (0,016±0,005) dan Tembaga (0,112±0,035). Sedangkan untuk parameter logam berat sedimen secara keseluruhan masih berada dalam ambang batas baku mutu yang telah ditentukan. Kondisi tercemar berasal dari aktifitas reklamasi pantai serta sumber alami dan limbah domestik dari aktifitas masyarakat cukup tinggi.

ABSTRACT

Makassar City is the city center in South Sulawesi Province which has coastal area activities, such as the use of industry, tourism, sea transportation and has two large rivers that estuary into the waters. This study aims to determine the concentration of heavy metals in water and sediment and determine their quality status. Observations were made at 10 strategic locations of pollutant sources such as factories, hotels, river mouths, and ports by taking water and sediment samples and then analyzed in the laboratory for heavy metals Cd, Cr, Hg, Zn, Cu, and Pb. Descriptive statistics are used to analyze the existing data. The Pollutant Index and Storet (Storage and Retrieval) method is used to determine the status of water and sediment quality of heavy metals for marine biota. The results of this study indicate that the waters of Makassar City are classified as "Lightly Polluted" based on the results of the calculation of the Pollutant index while the status of the water quality is classified as "Heavy Polluted". Parameters of heavy metals in the water column that exceed the quality standard are chromium (0,016±0,005) and copper (0,112±0,035). Meanwhile, the parameters of the sediment heavy metals as a whole are still within the specified quality standard. Polluted conditions derived from coastal reclamation activities as well as natural sources and domestic waste from community activities are quite high.

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Keywords: Logam Berat; Perairan Laut; Sedimen Laut; Kota Makassar

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