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The Effects of Dexmedetomidine As an Adjuvant with Levobupivacaine To Epidural Analgesia on The Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Total Abdominal Hysterectomy Surgery

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University/Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta, Indonesia

Received: 6 Feb 2024; Revised: 25 Feb 2024; Accepted: 3 Apr 2024; Published: 31 Mar 2024.

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Abstract

Background: Total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) characterizes as major surgery with increased risk of morbidity. It depends on adequate pain management intra- and postoperatively. Anesthesia management of TAH widely uses a regional approach with the epidural technique which administers a local anesthesia agent into the epidural space.

Objective: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of epidural levobupivacaine with fentanyl versus levobupivacaine with dexmedetomidine for epidural anesthesia in patients undergoing TAH.

Methods: This is a prospective, single-blinded trial conducted among 20 patients aged 18 to 40 years who underwent elective TAH with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class I and II status. The control group received epidural levobupivacaine 0.5% with fentanyl as an adjuvant, while the dexmedetomidine group received levobupivacaine 0.5% with dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant. We then compared the degree of pain using a numeric rating scale (NRS) 24 hours after surgery, duration of analgesia, and incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in both groups.

Result: Duration of analgesia was 89.60 + 7.6332 min in group dexmedetomidine, while it was 78.0 + 10.4562 min in group fentanyl, respectively (P < 0.05). The means of NRS was 3.00 + 1.88562 in group dexmedetomidine and 4.80 + 1.1352 in group fentanyl (p=0.019). The incidence of PONV in group dexmedetomidine was three, while in group fentanyl was eight (p=0.025).

Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine is preferred over fentanyl when added to levobupivacaine for epidural analgesia in TAH procedures. Dexmedetomidine offers superior quality with a prolonged duration of analgesia, lower NRS values, and a lower incidence of PONV rather than fentanyl.

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Keywords: dexmedetomidine; epidural anesthesia; fentanyl; levobupivacaine; total abdominal hysterectomy

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