Konsumsi tinggi lauk hewani, rendah sayur dan rendah aktivitas fisik berhubungan dengan kejadian kelebihan berat badan pada anak sekolah dasar

*R.L.N.K. Retno Triandhini -  Program Studi Ilmu Gizi, Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Indonesia
Angkit Kinasih -  Program Studi Pendidikan Jasmani Kesehatan dan Rekreasi, Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Indonesia
Anik Sriwijayanti -  Program Studi Ilmu Gizi, Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Indonesia
Received: 23 Nov 2017; Published: 1 Aug 2018.
Open Access
Citation Format:
Article Info
Section: Articles
Language: EN
Full Text:
Statistics: 449 1056
Abstract

Background : Overweight and obesity in children are becoming a global health issue that needs special attention. Overweight currently occur not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. One factor that affects over nutrition is the imbalance between food intake and physical activity.

Objective : The objective of this study is to analysis differences in food pattern and physical activitiy between overweight and normal children.

Methods : This study was used cross sectional design. Samples were 10-12 year olds students from 13 elementary schools in Getasan Subdistrict. Dietary intake were measured by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) form and physical activity were measured by Physical Activity Questionnaire For Older Children (PAQ-C) form. Data were analyzed by Chi-Square and independent t test.

Results : There are significant correlation between physical activity and the incidence of overweight in children (ρ=0,003). There are significant differences (ρ<0,05) in carbohydrates, animal protein, plant protein and vegetables intake (ρ=0,001, ρ=0,001, ρ=0,001, ρ=0,001) between normal and overweight groups.

Conclusion : There are significant correlation between physical activity and the incidence of overweight in children. There are significant differences in carbohydrates , animal protein, plant protein and vegetables intake between normal and overweght groups.

Keywords
Physical Activity, animal protein, vegetables, Food Pattern, Overweight

Article Metrics:

  1. Cali AMG, Caprio S. Obesity in children and adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab [Internet]. 2008;93(11_supplement_1):s31–6. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article-lookup/doi/10.1210/jc.2008-1363
  2. Rachmi CN, Li M, Alison Baur L. Overweight and obesity in Indonesia: prevalence and risk factors—a literature review. Public Health. 2017;147:20–9.
  3. Low LCK. Childhood obesity in developing countries. World J Pediatr. 2010;6(3):197–8.
  4. Badan Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Departemen Kesahatan RI. Riset Kesehatan Dasar (RISKESDAS 2007). Ris Kes Das; 2013.384.
  5. Badan Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Departemen Kesehatan RI. Riset Kesehatan Dasar (RISKESDAS 2010) Ris Kes Das; 2010.1–111.
  6. Badan Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Departemen Kesehatan RI. Riset Kesehatan Dasar (RISKESDAS 2013) Ris Kes Das; 2013.1–384.
  7. Simmond M. et.al., Predicting adult obesity from children obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. White Rose Research Online. University of York. 2015.
  8. Lumoindong A, Umboh A, Masloman N. Hubungan obesitas dengan profil tekanan darah pada anak usia 10-12 tahun di kota Manado 1. J e-Biomedik. 2013;1(1):147–53.
  9. Sartika RAD. Faktor risiko obesitas pada anak 5-15 tahun di Indonesia. Makara, Kesehatan. 2011;15(1):37–43.
  10. Behan DF, Cox SH. Obesity and its relation to mortality and morbidity costs. Soc Actuar. 2010;(December):1–77.
  11. Reilly JJ, Kelly J. Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: systematic review. Int J Obes [Internet]. 2011;35(7):891–8. Available from: http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/ijo.2010.222
  12. Payab M, et.al. Association of junk food consumption with high blood pressure and obesity in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2015; 91(2):196-205
  13. Huang JY, Qi SJ. Childhood obesity and food intake. World Journal of Pediatric. 2015; 11(2): 101-107.
  14. Kurdaningsih SV, Sudargo T, Lusmilasari L. Physical activities and sedentary lifestyle towards teenagers overweight/obesity status. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2016; 3(3):630-635.
  15. WHO. Global recommendations on physical activity for health; 2010.
  16. Tando M HT. No Title. Aktivitas fisik dan pola makan dengan obesitas sentral pada tokoh agama di kota Manado. GIZIDO. 2012;4:289–98.
  17. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Departemen Kesehatan RI. Riset Kesehatan Dasar ( Riskesdas ) Provinsi Bali Tahun 2007. 2009;1–246.
  18. Nurwanti E, Hadi H, Julia M. Paparan iklan junk food dan pola konsumsi junk food sebagai faktor risiko terjadinya obesitas pada anak sekolah dasar kota dan desa di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia. 2013; 1(2): 59-70
  19. Gibson R. Principal of nutrition assesment. Oxford Univ Press; 2005.
  20. Danari AL, Mayulu N, Onibala F. Hubungan aktivitas fisik dengan kejadian obesitas pada anak sd di kota Manado. ejournal keperawatan (e-Kp). 2013;1(1):4–7.
  21. Ogden CL, Carrol MD, Kit BK FK. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United State 2011-2012. J Am Med Assoc. 2014;311(8):806–14.
  22. Hendro B, Sefti R M. Hubungan pola makan dengan kejadian obesitas pada anak usia 8-10 tahun di SD Katolik 03 Frater Don Bosco Manado. J Hub Pola Makan Dengan Kejadian Obesitasa Pada Anak. 2014;2(173):1–7.
  23. Putra WN. Hubungan pola makan, aktivitas fizik dan aktivitas sendetari dengan overweight di SMAN 5 Surabaya. Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi. 2017; 5(3):298-310
  24. Poskitt E EL. Management childhood obesity. Cambridge Univ Press; 2008.
  25. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan RI. Laporan Riset Kesehatan Dasar Provinsi Jawa Timur. 2007;
  26. Juliantini NPL, Sidiartha IGL. Hubungan Riwayat Obesitas Pada Orangtua Dengan Kejadian Obesitas Pada Anak Sekolah Dasar. 2014;(Cdc):1–13.
  27. Kurdanti W, Suryani I, Syamsiatun NH, Siwi LP, Adityanti MM, Mustikaningsih D, et al. Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kejadian obesitas pada remaja. J Gizi Klin Indones. 2015;11(4):179–90.
  28. Rina N. Pencegahan dan Manajemen Obesitas. Elex Media Komputindo. 2011;
  29. Suryaputra K. dan Nadiroh SR. Perbedaan Pola Makan dan Aktivitas Fisik antara Remaja Obesitas dan Non Obesitas. Makara, Kesehatan 2012; 6 (1): 45-50.
  30. Beti D N W. Hubungan Asupan Protein Dengan Obesitas Pada Remaja. Program Studi Gizi, Ilmu Kedokteran, Fak Diponegoro, Univ. 2015;m:492–8.
  31. Lin Y, Mouratidou T, Vereecken C, Kersting M, Bolca S, de Moraes ACF, et al. Dietary animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with obesity and cardio-metabolic indicators in European adolescents: the HELENA cross-sectional study. Nutr J [Internet]. 2015;14(1):10. Available from: http://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-14-10
  32. Vereecken C, Huybrechts I, van HH, Martens V, Wittebroodt I, Maes L: Results from a dietary intervention study in preschools “Beastly Healthy at School. Int J Public Health 2009, 54:142-149. 2.
  33. Huybrechts I, Matthys C, Vereecken C, Maes L, Temme EH, Van OH, De BG, De HS: Food intakes by preschool children in flanders compared with dietary guidelines. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2008, 5:243-257.
  34. T Swara. Terapi jus buah dan sayur. Puspa Swara. 2008;90.
  35. WHO. Fruits and vegetables intake in a sample of 11-year-old children In 9 Europian countries: the pro children cross- sectional survey. Ann Nutr Metab. 2003;236–45.
  36. Indonesian Ministry of Health. Nutritional guidelines. 2014;
  37. Garipağaoğlu, Muazzez et al. Food types in the diet and the nutrient intake of obese and non-obese children. J Clin Res Ped Endo. 2008;1(2):21-29
  38. Johnson, Laura et al. Energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat dietary pattern is associated with increased fatness in childhood. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:846–54.
  39. Anggraeni A. Hubungan pola konsumsi makanan jajanan dengan status gizi dan kadar kolesterol pada anak Sekolah Dasar Negeri IKIP 1 Makassar [Skripsi]. Univ Islam Negeri Alauddin; 2014.
  40. Noviani, Kurnia., Afifah, Effatul., Astiti D. Kebiasaan jajan dan pola makan serta hubungannya dengan status gizi anak usia sekolah di SD Sonosewu Bantul Yogyakarta. Gizi dan Diet Indones. 2016;4(2):97–104.
  41. Zamzani et al. Aktivitas Fisik berhubungan dengan kejadian obesitas pada anak sekolah dasar. J Gizi dan Diet Indones. 2016;
  42. Kelishadi, Roya et al. Association of physical activity and dietary behaviours in relation to the body mass index in a national sampel of Iranian children and adolescents: CASPIAN study. Bull World Health Organ. 2012;85:1–84.