skip to main content

Differences in eating habits and physical activity before and during distance learning

Department of Nutrition Science, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia

Received: 14 Sep 2021; Published: 1 Jun 2022.

Citation Format:

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the enforcement of distance learning. This may cause negative impacts on adolescents' eating habits and physical activity.

Objectives: This study aimed to analyse the differences in eating habits and physical activity before and during distance learning in adolescents.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 95 adolescents aged between 15-18 years. Subjects were selected using a simple random sampling method. Eating habits and physical activity variables were measured using modified Eating Habit and Lifestyle Changes in COVID-19 and Eating Habits Questionnaire. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank and McNemar tests were used to analyse the data.

Results: There was an increase in frequency of meals two times/day (9.5%) and snacking three times/day (4.2%) reported during distance learning. There were significant differences in number of meals (p=0.014) and snacking (p=0.034), carbohydrates sources intake (p=0.046), sweet food (p=0.014), snack (p=0.016), exercise (p=0.035), exercise duration (p=0.004), and exercise frequency (p=0.030) before and during distance learning. There were no significant differences in protein-sources intake, vegetable, fruit, sweetened beverages, fried food, processed food, junk food, emotional eating, physiological eating, and ways of obtaining food before and during distance learning (p >0.05).

Conclusion: Significant differences were found in eating habits comprised of the number of main meals and snacking, intake of carbohydrates sources, sweet food, snack, and physical activity before and during distance learning

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: eating habit; physical activity; distance learning; adolescent

Article Metrics:

  1. Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao GF. A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):470–3
  2. Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, Bretzel G, Froeschl G, Wallrauch C, et al. Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(10):970–1
  3. Philips V, Wicaksono TY. Karakter dan persebaran Covid-19 di Indonesia: Temuan awal. CSIS Comment. 2020;(April):1–12
  4. Gubernur Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta. Peraturan Gubernur Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta No. 33 Tahun 2020 tentang Pelaksanaan Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar dalam Penanganan Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) di Provinsi Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta. Peraturan Gubernur Nomor 33 Tahuun 2020 2020 p. 19
  5. Anton SD, Miller PM. Do negative emotions predict alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity in older adults? Behav Modif. 2005;29(4):677–88
  6. Hossain MM, Sultana A, Purohit N. Mental health outcomes of quarantine and isolation for infection prevention: a systematic umbrella review of the global evidence. Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:1–11
  7. Zarrinpar A, Chaix A, Panda S. Daily eating patterns and their impact on health and disease circadian rhythms and metabolism. Trend Endocrinol Metab. 2016;27(2):69–83
  8. Margaritis I, Houdart S, El Ouadrhiri Y, Bigard X, Vuillemin A, Duché P. How to deal with COVID-19 epidemic-related lockdown physical inactivity and sedentary increase in youth? Adaptation of Anses’ benchmarks. Arch Public Heal. 2020;78(1):1–6
  9. Hobbs M, Pearson N, Foster PJ, Biddle SJH. Sedentary behaviour and diet across the lifespan: An updated systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49(18):1179–88
  10. Epstein LH, Paluch RA, Consalvi A, Riordan K, Scholl T. Effects of manipulating sedentary behavior on physical activity and food intake. J Pediatr. 2002;140(3):334–9
  11. Allabadi H, Dabis J, Aghabekian V, Khader A, Khammash U. Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on dietary and lifestyle behaviours among adolescents in Palestine. Dyn Hum Heal. 2020;7(2):1–11
  12. Ruiz-Roso MB, Padilha P de C, Mantilla-Escalante DC, Ulloa N, Brun P, Acevedo-Correa D, et al. Covid-19 confinement and changes of adolescent’s dietary trends in Italy, Spain, Chile, Colombia and Brazil. Nutrients. 2020;12(6):1–18
  13. Di Renzo L, Gualtieri P, Pivari F, Soldati L, Attinà A, Cinelli G, et al. Eating habits and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown: An Italian survey. J Transl Med. 2020;18(1):1–15
  14. Public Library of Science. Eating Habits Questionnaire [Internet]. Vol. 58, Public Library of Science. 2012 [cited 2020 Jul 30]. p. 9–10. Available from:
  15. Meyers L, Gamst G, Guarino AJ. Applied Multivariate Research: Design and Interpretation. California: SAGE; 2006. 1 p
  16. Jollife IT, Cadima J. Principal component analysis: A review and recent developments. Philos Trans R Soc A. 2016;374(2065):1–16
  17. Budiastuti D, Bandur A. Validitas dan Reabilitas Penelitian. Jakarta: Mitra Wacana Media; 2018. 150–169 p
  18. Hail JF, Black B, Babin B, Anderson R, Tatham RL. Multivariate Data Analysis. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education; 2006
  19. Santos RDO, Gorgulho BM, Castro MA De, Fisberg RM, Marchioni DM, Baltar VT. Principal component analysis and factor analysis: Differences and similarities in nutritional epidemiology application. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2019;22(E19004):1–14
  20. Mishra P, Pandey CM, Singh U, Gupta A, Sahu C, Keshri A. Descriptive statistics and normality tests for statistical data. Ann Card Anaesth. 2019;22(1):67–72
  21. Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia. Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia Nomor 23 Tahun 2017 Tentang Hari Sekolah. Indonesia; 2017 p. 1–9
  22. Kementrian Pendidikan Kebudayaan Riset dan Teknologi Republik Indonesia. Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia Nomor 719/P/2020 tentang Pedoman Pelaksanaan Kurikulum pada Satuan Pendidikan dalam Kondisi Khusus. 719/P/2020 Indonesia; 2020
  23. Utami AM, Kurniati AM, Ayu DR, Husin S, Liberty IA. Perilaku makan dan aktivitas fisik mahasiswa pendidikan dokter di masa pandemi COVID-19. J Kedokt dan Kesehat Publ Ilm Fak Kedokt Univ Sriwij. 2021;8(3):179–92
  24. Błaszczyk-Bębenek E, Jagielski P, Bolesławska I, Jagielska A, Nitsch-Osuch A, Kawalec P. Nutrition behaviors in polish adults before and during COVID-19 lockdown. Nutrients. 2020;12(3084):1–16
  25. Deschasaux-Tanguy M, Druesne-Pecollo N, Esseddik Y, De Edelenyi FS, Allès B, Andreeva VA, et al. Diet and physical activity during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown (March-May 2020): Results from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021;113(4):924–38
  26. Nickols-Richardson SM, Piehowski KE, Metzgar CJ, Miller DL, Preston AG. Changes in body weight, blood pressure and selected metabolic biomarkers with an energy-restricted diet including twice daily sweet snacks and once daily sugar-free beverage. Nutr Res Pract. 2014;8(6):695–704
  27. Association AD. American Dietetic Association Foundation Survey finds children skipping meals, snacking frequently [Internet]. 2014. Available from:
  28. Sánchez-Sánchez E, Ramírez-Vargas G, Avellaneda-López Y, Orellana-Pecino JI, García-Marín E, Díaz-Jimenez J. Eating habits and physical activity of the spanish population during the covid-19 pandemic period. Nutrients. 2020;12(9):1–12
  29. Insel PM, Turner RE, Ross D. Carbohydrates: Simple Sugars and Complex Chains. In: Discovering Nutrition. 2006. p. 96–124
  30. Paglia L, Friuli S, Colombo S, Paglia M. The effect of added sugars on children’s health outcomes: Obesity, Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and chronic diseases. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2019;20(2):127–32
  31. Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Permenkes No. 41 Tahun 2014 Tentang Pedoman Gizi Seimbang. Indonesia; 2014 p. 17–45
  32. El-Sayyad HI, Abou-Egla MH, El-Sayyad FI, El-Ghawet HA, Gaur RL, Fernando A, et al. Effects of fried potato chip supplementation on mouse pregnancy and fetal development. Nutrition. 2011;27(3):343–50
  33. Becalski A, Lau BPY, Lewis D, Seaman SW. Acrylamide in foods: Occurrence, sources, and modeling. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(3):802–8
  34. Hendriksen MAH, Boer JMA, Du H, Feskens EJM, Van Der A DL. No consistent association between consumption of energy-dense snack foods and annual weight and waist circumference changes in Dutch adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(1):19–25
  35. Nicklas TA, Yang SJ, Baranowski T, Zakeri I, Berenson G. Eating patterns and obesity in children - The Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Prev Med. 2003;25(1):9–16
  36. Lieberman HR, Fulgoni VL, Agarwal S, Pasiakos SM, Berryman CE. Protein intake is more stable than carbohydrate or fat intake across various US demographic groups and international populations. Am J Clin Nutr. 2020;112(1):180–6
  37. Mclntosh SN. Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy. Missouri: Elsevier Inc.; 2017
  38. Pietrobelli A, Pecoraro L, Ferruzzi A, Heo M, Zoller T, Antoniazzi F, et al. Effects of COVID-19 lockdown on lifestyle behaviors in children with obesity living in Verona, Italy: A longitudinal study. Obesity. 2020;28(8):1382–5
  39. Badan Litbangkes. Laporan Provinsi DKI Jakarta: Riskesdas 2018. Laporan Provinsi DKI Jakarta. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan; 2019. 1–535 p
  40. Devonport TJ, Nicholls W, Fullerton C. A systematic review of the association between emotions and eating behaviour in normal and overweight adult populations. J Health Psychol. 2019;24(1):3–24
  41. Evers C, Stok F, de Ridder DTD. Feeding your feelings: Emotion regulation strategies and emotional eating. Personal Soc Psychol Bull. 2010;36(6):792–804
  42. Muscogiuri G, Barrea L, Savastano S, Colao A. Nutritional recommendations for CoVID-19 quarantine. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020;74(6):850–1
  43. Australians HI for western. Junk Food [Internet]. [cited 2020 Sep 20]. Available from:
  44. Association AH. Excess sodium hurts your health and your looks [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2020 Sep 20]. Available from:
  45. Tatjana van S, Floris A van de L, Jan F.J. van L, Peter L, Henk van den H, Guy R, et al. The dieting dilemma in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: Does dietary restraint predict weight gain 4 years after diagnosis? Heal Psychol. 2007;26(1):105–12
  46. Smith M, Robinson L, Segal J, Segal R. Emotional Eating and How to Stop It [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2020 Sep 20]. Available from:
  47. Hall JE. Dietary balances; regulation of feedings; obesity and starvation; vitamins and minerals. In: Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology t. 13rd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2016. p. 892–3
  48. Bartness TJ, Keen-Rhinehart E, Dailey MJ, Teubner BJ. Neural and hormonal control of food hoarding. Am J Physiol - Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;301(3)
  49. Isnel P, Ross D, McMahon K, Bernstein M. Spotlight on Metabolism and Energy Balance. In: Discovering Nutrition. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2019. p. 248
  50. Magee E. Your “Hunger Hormones” [Internet]. Nourish by WebMD. 2017 [cited 2021 Jan 7]. Available from:
  51. Adams EL, Caccavale LJ, Smith D, Bean MK. Food Insecurity, the home food environment, and parent feeding practices in the era of COVID-19. Obesity. 2020;28(11):2056–63
  52. Norman P Spack Daniel E Shumer NJN. Cooking at home: A strategy to comply with U.S. dietary guidelines at no extra cost. Physiol Behav. 2017;176(12):139–48
  53. Mills S, Brown H, Wrieden W, White M, Adams J. Frequency of eating home cooked meals and potential benefits for diet and health: Cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14(1):1–11
  54. Robinson L, Segal J, Segal R. Cooking at Home [Internet]. HelpGuide. 2020 [cited 2020 Sep 27]. Available from:
  55. Harvard Health Publishing. Get Cooking at Home [Internet]. Harvard Health Publishing. 2017 [cited 2020 Sep 27]. Available from:
  56. Ismail LC, Osaili TM, Mohamad MN, Marzouqi A Al, Jarrar AH, Jamous DOA, et al. Eating habits and lifestyle during covid-19 lockdown in the united arab emirates: A cross-sectional study. Nutrients. 2020;12(11):1–20
  57. Leavey C, Eastaugh A, Kane M. Generation COVID-19; Building The Case To Protect Young People’s Future Health [Internet]. The Health Foundation. 2020 [cited 2021 Apr 21]. Available from:
  58. Ng K, Cooper J, McHale F, Clifford J, Woods C. Barriers and facilitators to changes in adolescent physical activity during COVID-19. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2020;6(1):1–9
  59. Knittle K, Heino M, Marques MM, Stenius M, Beattie M, Ehbrecht F, et al. The compendium of self-enactable techniques to change and self-manage motivation and behaviour v.1.0. Nat Hum Behav. 2020;4(2):215–23
  60. WHO (World Health Organization). #HealthyAtHome - Physical Activity [Internet]. World Health Organization. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:
  61. Schuch FB, Vancampfort D, Firth J, Rosenbaum S, Ward PB, Silva ES, et al. Physical activity and incident depression: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Psychiatry. 2018;175(7):631–48
  62. Schuch FB, Stubbs B, Meyer J, Heissel A, Zech P, Vancampfort D, et al. Physical activity protects from incident anxiety: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Depress Anxiety. 2019;36(9):846–58
  63. Joy L. Staying Active during COVID-19 [Internet]. American College of Sports Medicine. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 27]. Available from:

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2024-02-23 10:25:20

No citation recorded.