Hubungan Kadar Timbal Dalam Darah Dengan Tekanan Darah Pada Tenaga Kerja Di Karoseri Semarang

*Mutasir Mutasir  -  Kantor Kesehatan Pelabuhan Banda Aceh, Indonesia
Onny Setiani  -  Program Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Sulistiyani Sulistiyani  -  Program Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Published: 14 Apr 2016.
Open Access Copyright 2016 JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA


Citation Format:
Abstract

Background: Lead is a toxic metal that can be contained in paint as a source of lead exposure in the air so significantly associated with blood lead levels (BLL). Statistically there is a significant association between BLL and blood pressure (BP). Preliminary study found that 10 workers of Carroseri Semarang found that 8 people (80%) had BLL above the threshold value, 7 people (70%) had a systolic blood pressure (SBP) above the limit normal and 8 people (80%) had diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at the upper limit of normal.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the association between BLL and BP workers of Carroseri Semarang.

Methods: It was an observational study with cross sectional approach. The population of this research was workers of Carroseri Semarang with a sample size of 34 people. Data collected by examining the levels of lead in paint, inspection level of lead in the air, checking blood lead levels and blood pressure checks.

Results: This study showed the average level of lead in the paint measured was 59.39 ppm, level of lead in the air 0.002 ppm, BLL 28.97 mg/dL, SBP 122.76 mmHg and DBP 79.06 mmHg.

Conclusion: All types of paint used in Carroseri Semarang contain lead under TLVs 600 ppm, the ambient workspace containing air lead levels below TLVs 0.05 ppm, the entire workforce part painting has undergone blood lead exposure >5μg/dL, there is no association between BLL and SBP (p=0.465) and there a association between BLL and DBP (p =0.030).
Keywords: lead paint, blood lead levels, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure.

Article Metrics:

  1. WHO. Exposure to lead: A major public health concern. preventing disease through healthy environments. Public health and environment. 2010. Available from: URL: http://www.who.int/ipcs/ features/lead.pdf
  2. Ismawati Y, Primanti A, Brosché S, Clark S, Weinberg J, Denney V. Laporan nasional timbal dalam cat enamel rumah tangga di Indonesia. Denpasar: Balifokus; 2013
  3. U.S. Departemen of health and human services. Lead toxicity. Atlanta. ATSDR; 2010
  4. NHMCR. Review of blood lead level guidelines. Government of South Australia: Department for Health and Ageing; 2016. Available from: URL: https://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/42f444 0048734e50cdffd48c28c225a/NHMRC+Lead+Level+Guidelines+FAQs+FINAL%5B1%5D.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=42f4440048734e50bcdffd48c28c225a
  5. CDC. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet. Clifton Road Atlanta, USA. Februari 2015. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/data_statistics/ fact_sheets/fs_bloodpressure.htm
  6. WHO. Blood pressure. Global health observatory (GHO) data. WHO; 2016. Available from: URL: http:// www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk factors/ blood pressure prevalence/en/
  7. Kementerian Kesehatan. Hipertensi. Pusat data dan informasi Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Jakarta; 2014
  8. Dinas Kesehatan Jawa Tengah. Profil Kesehatan Provinsi Jawa Tengah tahun 2012. Semarang. 2013
  9. Muliyadi, Mukono, Notopuro H. Paparan timbal udara terhadap timbal darah, Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat. KEMAS 2015; 11(1): 87-95
  10. IPCS. Inorganic lead. Geneva, World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety (Environmental Health Criteria 165; 1995. Available from: URL:http://www. inchem.org/ documents/ehc/ehc/ehc165.htm)
  11. Fenga C, Cacciola A, Martino LB, Calderaro SL, Di Nola C, Verzera A, et al. Relationship of blood lead levels to blood pressure in exhaust battery storage workers. Industrial Health.2006;44:304-9
  12. Sastroasmoro S, Ismael S. Dasar-dasar metodologi penelitian klinis. Edisi 4. Jakarta: Sagung Seto; 2011
  13. Adib M. Cara mudah memahami dan menghindari hipertensi, jantung dan stroke. Yogyakarta: Dian Loka; 2009
  14. Irianto, DP. Panduan gizi lengkap keluarga dan olahragawa. Yogyakarta; CV. Andi Offset; 2007
  15. Supariasa IDN, Bakri B, Fajar I. Penilaian status gizi. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC; 2002
  16. Lemeshow S, Hosmer D, Klar J, Lwanga S. Besar sampel dalam penelitian kesehatan. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press; 1997
  17. NSW Government. Spray pengecatan and powder coating code of practice. Australia: Safe Work Australia; 2015
  18. Badan Standardisasi Nasional. Standar nasional Indonesia cat dekoratif berbasis pelarut organik. Standar Nasional Indonesia; SNI-8011:2014
  19. NSW Government. Spray painting and powder coating code of practice. Australia: Safe Work Australia; 2015
  20. WHO-UNEP. Operational framework global alliance to eliminate lead paint. WHO-UNEP. Maret 2011. Available from: URL: https://www. google. co.id/#q=operational+framework+global+ alliance+to+eliminate+lead+paint
  21. Muliyadi, Mukono, Notopuro H. Paparan timbal udara terhadap timbal darah, Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat. KEMAS 2015; 11(1): 87-95
  22. WHO. Lead: Assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and local levels. Geneva, World Health Organization (Environmental Burden of Disease Series: 2003 (2). Available from: URL: http://www.who.int/ quantifying ehimpacts/publications/en/ leadebd2.pdf)
  23. U.S. Departemen of Health and Human Services. Adult blood lead epidemiology & surveillance (ables). United States. CDC; 2016
  24. California Departemen of Public Health. Medical guidelines for the lead exposed worker. California. OLPPP; 2009
  25. Palar H. Pencemaran dan toksikologi logam berat. Cetakan 4. Jakarta: Rhineka Cipta; 2012
  26. Hasan W, Pencegahan keracunan timbal kronis pada pekerja dewasa dengan suplemen kalsium. Makara, Kesehatan Juni 2012; 16(1): 1-8
  27. Nawrot TS, Thijs L, Hond DEM, Roels HA dan Staessen JA. An Epidemiological re-appraisal of the association between blood pressure and blood lead: a meta-analysis. Journal of Human Hypertension (2002); 16(123–131)
  28. Turak O, Canpolat U, Isleyen A, Mendi M, Öksüz F, Özcan F, et al. Relationship between hemoglobin level and blood pressure variability in patients with newly diagnosed untreated essential hypertension. JACC. Oktober 2013; 62 (18)
  29. Vaziri, ND. Pathogenesis of lead-induced hypertension: role of oxidative stress. Journal Hypertens Suppl. Juni 2002; 20(3):15-20
  30. Boscolo P, Carmignani. Neurohumoral Blood Pressure Regulation in Lead Exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1988; 78(101-106)
  31. Alghasham A.A, Meki AR dan Ismail HAS. Association of Blood Lead level with Elevated Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients. Int J Health Sci (Qassim). Jan 2011; 5(1): 17–27
  32. Romero J.C. dan Reckelhoff J.F. Oxidative stress may explain how hypertension is maintained by normal levels of angiotensin II. Orxaizdialitainve J osutrrensas laonfd M heydpiecratle annsido nBiological Research (2000); 33(653-660)
  33. Sirivarasai J, Kaojarern S, Chanprasertyothin S, Panpunuan P, Petchpoung K, Tatsaneeyapant A, et.al. Environmental lead exposure, catalase gene, and markers of antioxidant and oxidative stress relation to hypertension: an analysis based on the egat study. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. BioMed Research International. 2015
  34. Araujo M dan Wilcox SC. Oxidative stress in hypertension: role of the kidney. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2014; 20 (1)
  35. Masud, Ibnu. Dasar-dasar fisiologi kardiovaskuler. Cetakan I. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC; 1992

Last update: 2021-03-06 00:26:02

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2021-03-06 00:26:03

No citation recorded.