Pengaruh Iklim Terhadap Peluang Umur Nyamuk Mansonia spp di Daerah Endemis Filariasis di Kabupaten Kapuas

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/jkli.17.2.74-79
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Submitted: 09-02-2018
Published: 01-10-2018
Section: Research Articles
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Latar belakang: Filariasis merupakan penyakit menular menahun yang disebabkan oleh cacing filaria jenis Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi dan Brugia timori melalui nyamuk sebagai vektor. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh iklim terhadap peluang hidup di alam nyamuk Mansonia spp. di daerah endemis filariasis di Kelurahan Mandomai, Kabupaten Kapuas

Metode: . Koleksi nyamuk dengan metode human landing collection  di dalam dan diluar rumah, nyamuk yang tertangkap setelah di identifikasi dilakukan pembedahan. Pembedahan abdomen nyamuk untuk mengetahui paritas. Data iklim dan curah hujan diambil dari data BMKG.

Hasil: Hasil penelitian diketahui Aktivitas menghisap darah Ma. uniformis di luar rumah banyak tertangkap pada pukul 21.00-22.00 dan di dalam rumah pada pukul 22.00-23.00. Aktivitas Ma. dives banyak tertangkap pada pagi hari yaitu pukul 04.00-05.00 di luar rumah, sedangkan di dalam rumah paling banyak pukul 23.00-24.00. Aktivitas Ma. annulata di luar rumah paling banyak tertangkap pada pukul 18.00-19.00 dan di dalam rumah paling banyak tertangkap pada pukul 19.00-20.00. Kepadatan tertinggi per hari (MBR) dan perjam (MHD) pada Ma. annulata  di luar rumah, sedangkan yang terendah pada Ma. dives. Berdasarakan data dari BMKG dan pengukuran di lapangan,  suhu di daerah Kelurahan Mandomai dari bulan juli sampai desember berkisar antara 28° C, dimana kelembaban dan curah hujan tertinggi terjadi pada bulan Desember. Peluang hidup di alam nyamuk Ma. uniformis 4,4 hari, Ma. dives 1,3 hari dan Ma. annulata 32,2 hari. Hasil uji statistik diketahui ada pengaruh indeks curah hujan dan kelembaban dengan Peluang hidup di alam Ma. annulata

Simpulan: Ditemukannya nyamuk Mansonia yang berperan sebagai vektor dengan peluang hidup di alam lebih dari 14 hari sehingga iklim di Kelurahan Mandomai mendukung perkembangan nyamuk sebagai vektor

 

ABSTRACT

Title: Climate Influence on Mansonia spp Mosquito Age Spend in Endemic Filariasis Region in Kapuas District

Background: Filariasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by filarial worms, i.e.  Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori species and transmitted by mosquitoes as vectors. Aim this study to determine the effect of climate on the chances of living in the nature of mosquito Mansonia spp. in the filariasis endemic area of Mandomai Village, Kapuas District

Methods: Mosquitoes are collected by human landing collection of people in and out the home, abdominal surgery mosquitoes to know parity. Climate dan rainfall index are taken from BMKG.

Results: The result showed activity of blood sucking outdoors caught at 21.00-22.00 and indoor 22.00-23.00 for Ma. uniformis. Caught in the morning at 04.00-05.00 outside, while indoor 23.00-24.00 for Ma. dives. Outdoors Activity caught at most at 18.00-19.00 and indoor at 19.00-20.00 for Ma. annulata. The highest density man bitting fate and man hour density in Ma. annulata is outdoors, while the lowest on Ma. dives. Based on data from BMKG and field measurements, the temperatures in the Mandomai Urban Village from July to December ranged from 28 ° C, while humidity and the highest rainfall occurred in December. Longevity of mosquito 4.4 days for Ma. uniformis, 1.3 days for Ma. dives and 32.2 days Ma. annulata. The results of statistical test known to have influence of temperature dan index of rainfall with longevity of Ma. uniformis and Ma. dives.

Conclusion: The discovery of Mansonia mosquito that acts as a vector with longevity more than 14 days, so that the climate in Mandomai village supports the development of mosquitoes as vectors

Keywords

Peluang hidup; Iklim; Mansonia; Filariasis (Longevity; Climate; Mansonia; Filariasis)

  1. Muhammad Rasyid Ridha 
    Balai Litbang P2B2 Tanah Bumbu, Tanah Bumbu, Indonesia
  2. Juhairiyah Juhairiyah 
    Balai Litbang P2B2 Tanah Bumbu, Tanah Bumbu, Indonesia
  3. Deni Fakhrizal 
    Balai Litbang P2B2 Tanah Bumbu, Tanah Bumbu, Indonesia
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