Analisis Faktor Risiko Kejadian penyakit Tuberculosis Bagi Masyarakat Daerah Kumuh Kota Palembang

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/jkli.17.2.87-94
Copyright (c) 2018 JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)

Article Info
Submitted: 15-03-2018
Published: 01-10-2018
Section: Research Articles
Fulltext PDF Tell your colleagues Email the author

Latar belakang:Tuberculosis atau dikenal dengan TB Paru merupakan penyakit yang mematikan setelah HIV-AIDS. Penyakit ini menjadi epidemik di dunia. Indonesia merupakan Negara dengan urutan kedua di dunia penderita TB Paru setelah India. Tahun 2016 penderita Tuberculosis mengalami peningkatan dari 9,6 juta menjadi 10,5 juta jiwa. Sementara Palembang merupakan Kota dengan prevalensi Tuberculosis tertinggi di provinsi Sumatera Selatan

Metode:Penelitian ini adalah deskriptif analitik dengan pendekatan cross sectional, sampel penelitian ini adalah masyarakat yang berobat ke Puskesmas di Kota Palembang. Teknik sampling menggunakan proporsional random sampling. Analisis data menggunakan chi-square dan regresi logistic berganda.

Hasil:Analisis statistik secara bivariabel menyimpulkan bahwa terdapat hubungan antara jenis kelamin PR 0.65 (0.45 - 0.80), riwayat TB anggota keluarga PR 2.49(1.92 – 3.23),akses informasi PR 2.49(1.92 – 3.23), pencahayaan, kelembapan PR 1.57 (1.10 – 2.23), kondisi atap PR 3.57 (2.38 – 5.34), dinding PR 4.96(2.98 – 8.27), lantai rumah PR 2.46 (1.86 – 3.22), dengan kejadian penyakit Tuberculosis Paru (p<0.05) dan variabel kepadatan hunian secara bivariat PR 0.76(0.58 – 1.01) Sedangkan secara multivariabel menemukan bahwa kepadatan hunian merupa kan variabel yang paling dominan dengan nilai OR 6.42(1.55-26.63).

Simpulan:Karakteristik rumah merupakan variabel yang berperan dalam penyebaran penyakit Tuberculosis dan kepadatan hunian merupakan faktor dominan kejadian penyakit tersebut. Surveilens terhadap faktor – faktor risiko lingkungan pada daerah – daerah yang rentan dengan Tuberculosis perlu dilakukan disertai penyuluhan dengan pendekatan keluarga untuk mencegah penyakit Tuberculosis.

 

ABSTRACT

Title: Analysis of Tuberculosis Risk Factors in Slum Area Palembang

Background:Tuberculosis is a fatal disease after HIV-AIDS. This disease becomes epidemic in the world. Indonesia is the second  most populous country in the world of pulmonary tuberculosis patients after India. In 2016, Tuberculosis patients increased from 9,6 million to 10,5 million people. While Palembang Patients TB were the highest one in South Sumatra.

Methods:This research was analytical descriptive with cross sectional approach.Sample was patients who visited Puskesmas in Palembang. The sampling technique used proportional  random sampling. Data was analysed through bivariate analysis by  chi-square and multivariate analysis by logistic regression.

Results:Bivariable statistical analysis concluded that there were relationship among sex with PR 0.65 (0.45 - 0.80), family history in family with PR 2.49 (1.92 - 3.23), access to information with PR 2.49 (1.92 - 3.23), lighting, humidity with PR 1.57 (1.10 - 2.23 ), roof condition with PR 3.57 (2.38 - 5.34), house wall with PR 4.96 (2.98 - 8.27), home floor PR 2.46 (1.86 - 3.22) with incidence of Tuberculosis Lung disease (p <0.05). occupancy density PR 0.76(0.58 – 1.01)  While multivariable found that occupancy density is the most dominant variable with the value of OR 6.42 (1.55-26.63).

Conclusion: house Characteristics were variables that took a role in the spread of Tuberculosis disease and living house density was the dominant factor of the incidence of the disease. Surveillance of environmental risk factors in vulnerable areas with Tuberculosis should be accompanied by familial counseling to prevent Tuberculsois disease

Keywords

Tuberculosis; faktor risiko; daerah kumuh (Tuberculosis; Risk factors; slum area)

  1. Iwan Stia Budi 
    Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, Indonesia
    Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat
  2. Yustini Ardillah 
    UNIVERSITAS SRIWIJAYA, Palembang
    FAKULTAS KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT
  3. Indah Purnama Sari 
    Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, Indonesia
    Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat
  4. Dwi Septiawati 
    Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, Indonesia
    Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat
  1. WHO. Global Tuberculosis Report 2015. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2015.
  2. Versitaria HU, Kusnoputranto H. Tuberkulosis Paru di Palembang, Sumatera Selatan. Kesmas: National Public Health Journal. 2011;5(5):234-40.
  3. Infodatin. Tuberculosis: Temukan Obati Sampai Sembuh. Jakarta: PUSADATIN; 2015.
  4. Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Profil Kesehatan Indonesia. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, 2014.
  5. Dinas Kesehatan Sumsel. Profil Kesehatan Sumatera Selatan 2015. Palembang: Dinas Kesehatan Sumatera Selatan, 2016.
  6. Dinas Kesehatan Palembang. Profil Kesehatan Kota Palembang 2015. Palembang: Dinas Kesehatan Palembang; 2016.
  7. Azhar K, Perwitasari D. Kondisi fisik rumah dan perilaku dengan prevalensi TB paru di Propinsi Dki Jakarta, Banten dan Sulawesi Utara. Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. 2014;23(4):172-81.
  8. Sayera B, Rahman T, Mohammad Khaja Mafij U, Khatun R, Tahmeed A, Rahman M, et al. Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in an Urban Slum of Dhaka City, Bangladesh. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):1-8.
  9. Stevens H, Ximenes RA, Dantas OM, Rodrigues LC. Risk factors for tuberculosis in older children and adolescents: a matched case-control study in Recife, Brazil. Emerging themes in epidemiology. 2014;11(1):11-20.
  10. Greenaway CMDM, Sandoe AMPH, Vissandjee BP, Kitai IMBB, Gruner DMD, Wobeser WMDM, et al. Tuberculosis: evidence review for newly arriving immigrants and refugees. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2011;183(12):E939-51.
  11. Aldridge RW, Zenner D, White PJ, Muzyamba MC, Loutet M, Dhavan P, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for active tuberculosis in migrants screened before entry to the UK: a population-based cross-sectional study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2016;16(8):962-70.
  12. Donald PR, Marais BJ, Barry CE, 3rd. Age and the epidemiology and pathogenesis of tuberculosis. The Lancet. 2010;375(9729):1852-4.
  13. Bele S, Jiang W, Lu H, You H, Fan H, Huang L, et al. Population Aging and Migrant Workers: Bottlenecks in Tuberculosis Control in Rural China. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):1-7.
  14. Prasetyowati I, Wahyuni CU. Hubungan Antara Pencahayaan Rumah, Kepadatan Hunian dan Kelembaban dan Risiko terjadinya Infeksi TB Jurnal Kedokteran Indonesia. 2009;1(1):88-94.
  15. Heriyani F, Sutomo AH, Saleh YDa. Risk Factors of Incidence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Banjarmasin City, Kalimantan, Indonesia. International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS). 2013;2(1):1-6.
  16. Corburn J, Hildebrand C. Slum sanitation and the social determinants of women’s health in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of environmental and public health. 2015;2015(1):1-6.
  17. Haider BA, Akhtar S, Hatcher J. Daily contact with a patient and poor housing affordability as determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis in urban Pakistan. International journal of mycobacteriology. 2013;2(1):38-43.
  18. Kirenga BJ, Ssengooba W, Muwonge C, Nakiyingi L, Kyaligonza S, Kasozi S, et al. Tuberculosis risk factors among tuberculosis patients in Kampala, Uganda: implications for tuberculosis control. BMC public health. 2015;15(1):2-7.