Urgensi Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Risiko Infeksi Leishmaniasis atas Kontingen Garuda di Lebanon

*I Dewa Ketut Kerta Widana  -  Indonesian Defense University, Bogor, Indonesia
Abimanyu Hilmawan  -  Indonesia Defense University, Bogor, Indonesia
Received: 15 Feb 2019; Revised: 8 Mar 2019; Accepted: 11 Mar 2019; Published: 2 Apr 2019.
Open Access Copyright 2019 JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA
License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0

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Article Info
Section: Research Articles
Language: ID
Statistics: 1543 4985
Abstract

Latar belakang: Suriah merupakan wilayah endemik Cutaneous Leishmaniasis dengan kasus infeksi yang terburuk di dunia. Akibat perang saudara dan  terorisme, infeksi penyakit Cutaneous Leishmaniasis atas rakyat Suriah menjadi tidak terkendali dengan kasus sebesar 58.156 di tahun 2011, 71.996 di tahun 2013, dan 50.972 kasus di tahun 2015. Konflik berkepanjangan mendorong dislokasi rakyat Suriah ke negara-negara di sekitarnya, salah satunya Lebanon. Catatan kasus Cutaneous Leishmaniasis di Lebanon selalu baik dalam jangka tahun 2006 hingga 2015 (selalu di bawah 7 kasus). Namun akibat dislokasi rakyat Suriah ke Lebanon, menimbulkan peningkatan imported case Cutaneous Leishmaniasis yang terus meningkat dari 1.033 kasus di tahun 2013 menjadi 1.393 di tahun 2015. Sejak tahun 2006, Indonesia mengirim Kontingen Garuda untuk misi perdamaian di perbatasan Lebanon-Israel. Dengan meningkatnya risiko infeksi Cutaneous Leishmaniasis di Lebanon, belum adanya gambaran berapa lama konflik di Suriah akan berakhir, dan belum jelasnya kapan misi perdamaian Indonesia di Lebanon akan selesai, risiko infeksi Leishmaniasis atas prajurit TNI semakin tinggi. Tujuan paper ini adalah memberikan masukan bagaimana Kontingen Garuda di Lebanon memperkecil risiko infeksi Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Metode: Paper ini disusun dengan teknik studi literatur (literature review) mengenai praktik pencegahan dan pengendalian infeksi Leishmaniasis menggunakan teknik Miles, Huberman dan Saldana (2014) yaitu data condensation, data display, dan conclusion drawing.

Hasil: Vaksin penyakit Leishmaniasis belum ditemukan dan obat-obatan untuk penyembuhannya yang tersedia saat ini masih memiliki  toksisitas tinggi. Mencegah gigitan lalat pasir dengan alat pelindung diri, rekayasa lingkungan untuk penurunan populasi lalat pasir dan hewan inang, serta mengkarantina dan memulihkan inang manusia adalah cara paling efektif untuk mengontrol risiko infeksi Leishmaniasis.

Simpulan: Mencegah gigitan lalat pasir adalah cara terbaik dalam memperkecil risiko infeksi Leishmaniasis. Pemberantasan vektor dan inang, serta penggunaan alat pelindung diri adalah langkah yang perlu diambil Kontingen Garuda untuk memperkecil risiko infeksi Leishmaniasis.

 

ABSTRACT

Title: The Urgency to Prevent and Control the Risk of Leishmaniasis Infection on the Garuda Contingent in Lebanon

Background: Syria is an endemic region of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with the worst infection case in the world. Fueled by civil war and terrorism, Cutaneous Leishmaniasis infection ravage the country with 58.156 cases in 2011, 71.996 cases in 2013, and 50.972 cases in 2015. The prolonged conflict force the dislocations of Syrians to neighbouring countries such as Lebanon. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis case in Lebanon is relatively low but as the refugee from Syria entering the border, the imported case of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis increases. As Indonesia keep sending Garuda Contingent to Lebanon for peacekeeping mission since 2006, this caused a worry that the troops may infected with Leishmaniasis. The aim of this paper is to give inputs about how to suppress the risk of infection between Garuda Contingent in Lebanon.

Methods: literature review from journals about Leishmaniasis prevention and control using Miles, Huberman, and Saldana’s (2014) analytical technique of data condensation, data display, and conclusion drawing.

Results: Vaccine for Leishmaniasis is yet to be found and the medicines for the treatment is still have high toxicity. Preventing the sandfly bites by using self protective measures/equipment, environmental engineering to reduce Leishmaniasis reservoir and vector, quarantine the infected human and curing the victim are the most effective way to control the risk of Leishmaniasis infeections.

Conclusion:  Preventing sandfly bite is the best way to suppress the risk of Leishmaniasis infection. Vector and reservoir control, and the use self protective measures and equipment is necessary to lower the Leishmaniasis infection risks to Garuda Contingent.

Keywords: cutaneous leishmaniasis; Kontingen Garuda; Lebanon; pencegahan; pengendalian (Cutaneous Leishmaniasis; Garuda Contingent; Lebanon; prevention; control)

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