Factors Associated with Cholinesterase Level of Spraying Workers Using Paraquat Herbicide at Oil Palm Plantation in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

*Iwan Muhamad Ramdan orcid scopus  -  Dept. Occupational Health and Safety Faculty Public Health Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia
Krishna Purnawan Candra scopus  -  Dept. Agricultural Product Technology Faculty Agriculture Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia
Herry Purwanto  -  Ministry of labor of the Republic of Indonesia Health and Safety Laboratory, Samarinda, Indonesia
Received: 10 Apr 2019; Revised: 27 Dec 2019; Accepted: 1 Feb 2020; Published: 1 Apr 2020.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/jkli.19.1.16-20 View
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Open Access Copyright 2020 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia
License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0

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Abstract

Latar Belakang: Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia pada tahun 2006 memperkirakan 1-5 juta kasus keracunan pestisida setiap tahun pada pekerja pertanian dengan kematian mencapai 220.000 korban. Sekitar 80% keracunan pestisida dilaporkan di negara-negara berkembang, termasuk Indonesia. Pada 10 tahun terakhir, luas perkebunan kelapa sawit di Kalimantan Timur meningkat sebesar 7,7%. Pada tahun 2017 perkebunan kelapa sawit di Kalimantan Timur mencapai 1,2 juta ha dengan jumlah pekerja mencapai 234 ribu orang. Hingga saat ini belum pernah ada kajian dampak paparan pestisida terhadap gangguan kesehatan dengan indikator kadar cholinesterase. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis faktor yang berhubungan dengan tingkat keracunan penyemprot perkebunan kelapa sawit yang mengaplikasikan herbisida paraquat.

Metode: Penelitian cross-sectionaldengan metoda sampling acak sederhana telah dilakukan pada 326 penyemprot dari 10 perkebunan kelapa sawit yang menggunakan herbisida paraquat, untuk mengidentifikasi prevalensi keracunan dan faktor risikonya. Tingkat keracunan pestisida diukur berdasarkan kadar enzim cholinesterase darah menggunakan Tintometer kit. Usia, masa kerja, dan area penyemprotan per hari dikumpulkan dengan wawancara langsung. Data dianalisis menggunakan Uji Spearman.

Hasil:Penyemprot herbisida sebagian besar berusia >26-34 tahun (31,9%), mempunyai masa kerja < 5 tahun (76,1%), menyemprot area seluas < 4 ha per hari (84%). Toksisitas ringan dialami oleh 29 orang penyemprot (8,9%). Keracunan ringan herbisida tersebut berkorelasi signifikan dengan usia (p=0,000) dan area penyemprotan per hari (p=0,014).

Kesimpulan: Prevalensi keracunan paraquat di kalangan pekerja penyemprot herbisida di perkebunan kelapa sawit relatif rendah. Penggunaan herbisida dengan dosis yang lebih rendah dan pengurangan area semprot menjadi faktor penting untuk dipertimbangkan dalam usaha pencegahan keracunan herbisida yang lebih buruk.


ABSTRACT

Background: In 2006, World Health Organization estimates a number of 1-5 million cases of pesticide poisoning per year in agricultural workers with deaths reaching of 220,000 casualties. About 80% of pesticide poisoning was reported in developing countries, including Indonesia. In the last ten years, palm oil plantation area in East Kalimantan increased at 7.7%. In 2017, palm oil plantation covered an area of 1,2 billion ha with 234.000 workers. Until now, there is no study on pesticide exposure on health disorder with indicator using cholinesterase level.

Methods: A cross-sectional study has been conducted using simple random sampling on 326 sprayers from 10 oil palm plantations using paraquat herbicide to identify herbicide poisoning prevalence, and its risk factor. The pesticide poisoning rate was measured based on blood cholinesterase enzyme level using a Tintometer kit. Age, working period, and spraying area per day were collected by direct interview. Data were analysed by Spearman test.

Result: The most sprayer workers was at age of > 26-34 years (31.9%), having working experience <5 years (76.1%), implementing a spray area per day of <4 ha (84%). A mild toxicity was experienced by 29 sprayers (8.9%). The prevalence of paraquat herbicide was correlated significantly with age (p=0.000) and spraying area per day (p=0.014).

Conclusion: The prevalence of paraquat among herbicide sprayer at oil palm plantation was relative low. Application of herbicide with lower doses and reducing the spraying area are the necessary factors to be considered in order to prevent the herbicide poisoning become worst.

Note: This article has supplementary file(s).

Keywords: Herbiside; paraquat; cholinesterase; sprayers of oli palm plantation.
Funding: -

Article Metrics:

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