Biofiltration Performance of Coconut Shell and Plastic Waste Made from Egg Holders for Medical Wastewater Treatment

Zainal Akhmadi  -  Health Polytechnic of Health Ministry of Pontianak, Pontianak, Indonesia
Suharno Suharno  -  Health Polytechnic of Health Ministry of Pontianak, Pontianak, Indonesia
*Kholisotul Hikmah  -  Health Polytechnic of Health Ministry of Pontianak, Pontianak, Indonesia
Received: 31 Jul 2019; Revised: 23 Jan 2020; Accepted: 7 Feb 2020; Published: 1 Apr 2020.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/jkli.19.1.62-67 View
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Open Access Copyright 2020 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia
License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Pengelolaan limbah cair medis dari fasilitas pelayanan kesehatan memegang peran penting bagi lingkungan dan keamanan masyarakat luas. Pencemar yang terkandung di dalamnya harus diolah terlebih dahulu sebelum dibuang ke lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan hasil dari pengolahan limbah cair medis (IPAL) dengan menggunakan tempurung kelapa dan plastic bekas tempat telur sebagai media biofiltrasi untuk menurunkan kadar BOD dan COD di Puskesmas Siantan Hulu.

Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan jenis quasi-eksperimen. IPAL yang diaplikasikan adalah continuous flow dengan volume 2000 liter dan dibagi menjadi 4 tahapan, yaitu pengendapan awal, bak anaerob, bak aerob dan bak pengendapan akhir. Proses pembiakan mikroorganisme dilakukan secara alami dengan membiarkan media direndam dalam bak anaerob dan aerob selama 14 hari. Penelitian inti dilakukan secara kontinyu dengan lama tinggal 6 hari sesudah melewati ketebalan media tempurung kelapa dan plastic bekas yang berbeda, yaitu 20:40 cm, 40:40 cm dan 60:20 cm. Hasil dianalisis menggunakan uji t berpasangan dan uji One-Way Anova serta rumus efisiensi penurunan parameter.

Hasil: Diperoleh hasil bahwa ada perbedaan kadar BOD dan COD sebelum dan sesudah melewati media biakan lekat (p=0,000) dengan berbagai ketebalan media. Berdasarkan waktu tinggal, tidak ditemukan perbedaan yang signifikan terhadap kadar BOD dan COD (p=0,985 dan p=0,142).  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di antara kombinasi anaerobic dan aerobic, aplikasi 20 cm tempurung kelapa dan 60 cm plastic bekas selama 6 hari menghasilkan penurunan tertinggi, yaitu dengan efisiensi rata-rata 94,3% dari rata-rata 130 mg/l menjadi 6,2 mg/l dan COD 96,6% dari rata-rata 217,2 mg/l menjadi 7,3 mg/l..

Simpulan: Penelitian ini menghasilkan kadar BOD dan COD yang sesuai (<NAB), menjadi 6,2 md/l dan 7,3 mg/l. Modifikasi ini menurunkan BOD dengan rata-rata efisiensi 94,3% dan COD 96,6%. Disimpulkan bahwa ketebalan media yang terbaik adalah 20:60 cm tempurung kelapa dan plastik bekas dan waktu tinggal 1 hari.


ABSTRACT

Background: Health facilities waste water management is a crucial environmental and public safety issue. These pollutants should be treated by the proper treatment before release to the municipal drainage. This study aims at presenting the results of waste water treatment modification which used coconut shell and plastic as biofiltration media to decrease organic pollutants (BOD and COD) at Public Health Center of Siantan Hulu.

Methods: This study is a quasy experiment. The type of wastewater treatment that is used in this research is a continuous flow which has total volume 2000 litter and divided into 4 zones, i.e presedimentation, anaerob zone, aerobic zone and post sedimentation zone. Seeding microorganism has done naturally by letting media in anaerob and aerob zone for 14 days. The main research were conducting by continuous operation under 6 days retention time after treated by different media depth of coconut shell and plastic, i.e 20:60cm, 40:40cm and 60:20cm. The results analyzed by paired sample t-test, one-way anova, and also proportional efficiency formula.

Results: It obtained that there was difference of BOD and COD level before and after through various bed depth of media (p=0,000). Based on retention time, it was not found any difference towards BOD and COD content (p=0,985 and p=0,142). The result of experiment shows that within the combined anaerobic and aerobic process using 20 cm coconut shell and 60 cm of plastic media under condition 6  days retention time, the average of removal efficiency of BOD reached to 96,6% from 130 mg/l into 6,2 mg/l and COD 94,3% which 217,2 mg/l down to 7,3 mg/l..

Conclusion: Application of coconut shell and plastic waste media filtration for medical wastewater treatment resulted  appropriate BOD and COD content, into 6,2 mg/l and 7,3 mg/l respectively. This modification decreases BOD with the average of percentage efficiency stood at  94,3% and COD at 96,6%. It was found to be the best media with an appropriate coconut shell:plastic waste bed depth of 20:60 cm with 1 day of retention time.

Note: This article has supplementary file(s).

Keywords: coconut shell; plastic waste of egg holders; BOD; COD; medical wastewater
Funding: Politeknik Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan Pontianak

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Last update: 2021-02-26 14:51:26

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