skip to main content

PENGARUH LINGKUNGAN TERBANGUN TERHADAP AKTIVITAS FISIK UNTUK KESEHATAN LANJUT USIA

*Petrus Natalivan Indradjati orcid scopus publons  -  Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Amalia Rahayu  -  Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright 2021 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

Citation Format:
Abstract

Latar belakang: Semakin meningkatnya jumlah penduduk lanjut usia, maka persoalan kesehatan pada kelompok ini menjadi isu penting di masa mendatang. Salah satu yang berkontribusi pada kesehatan lanjut usia adalah aktivitas fisiknya yang dipengaruhi tidak hanya faktor personal tetapi juga oleh faktor lingkungan terbangun. Penelitian hubungan antara lingkungan terbangun dengan aktivitas fisik dan kesehatan lanjut usia banyak dilakukan, khususnya di negara maju, namun pada kondisi sosial ekonomi dan karakteristik perkotaan di Indonesia masih sangat terbatas.

Metode: Penelitian ini mengeksplorasi pengaruh lingkungan terbangun terhadap aktivitas fisik/kesehatan lanjut usia pada lima kelurahan di pusat Kota Surakarta. Faktor lingkungan terbangun mencakup aksesibilitas, kenyamanan, kejelasan orientasi, keamanan dan keselamatan.  Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi dan penyebaran kuesioner pada 100 responden lanjut usia secara accidental (non-probabilistic sampling) dari jumlah populasi lanjut usia sebanyak 2417 jiwa. Analisis asosiasi dengan uji chi square dan uji somers’d untuk melihat hubungan antara aktivitas fisik dengan karakteristik personal lanjut usia dan faktor lingkungan terbangun.

Hasil: Kesehatan menjadi alasan utama usia lanjut melakukan aktivitas fisik (58% responden). Namun tingkat aktivitas fisiknya tidak berhubungan dengan karakteristik personal seperti jenis kelamin, pendidikan, dan penyakit tidak menular yang diderita (nilai signifikansi > 0.05). Faktor lingkungan terbangun yang berpengaruh pada aktivitas fisik lanjut usia adalah kemudahan menyeberang (nilai signifikansi 0,000) dan keamanan jalur penyeberangan (nilai signifikansi 0,000).

Simpulan: Tidak seluruh faktor lingkungan terbangun akan mendorong lanjut usia melakukan aktivitas fisik untuk menjaga kesehatannya. Intervensi terhadap faktor keamanan dan desain penyeberangan untuk mengatasi konflik dengan kendaraan bermotor sangat penting di pusat kota.

Note: This article has supplementary file(s).

Fulltext |  Turnitin
Turnitin
Subject
Type Turnitin
  Download (1MB)    Indexing metadata
Keywords: lanjut usia; aktivitas fisik; kesehatan
  1. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. World Population Prospects 2019. New York: United Nations; 2019
  2. World Health Organization. Ageing and Health [Internet]. World Health Organization. 2018 [cited 2020 Jun 19]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ageing-and-health
  3. Badan Pusat Statistik Kota Surakarta. Statistik Penduduk Lanjut Usia 2019. Surakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik Kota Surakarta; 2019
  4. United Nations Development Program, HelpAge International, AARP. Ageing, Older Persons and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. New York: United Nations Development Programme; 2017
  5. WHO - World Health Organization. Global Age-friendly Cities: A Guide. France; 2007
  6. Fatmah. Gizi Usia Lanjut. Jakarta: Erlangga; 2010
  7. Stoneham J, Thoday PR. Landscape Design for Elderly and Disabled People. Abardeen: Garden Art Press; 1996
  8. World Health Organization Europe. Physical Activity and Health in Europe: Evidence for Action. Cavill N, Kahlmeier S, Racioppi F, editors. Copenhagen; 2006
  9. Manz K, Mensink GBM, Jordan S, Schienkiewitz A, Krug S, Finger JD. Predictors of Physical Activity Among Older Adults in Germany: A Nationwide Cohort Study. BMJ Open. 2018;8:1–10
  10. Zang P, Xue CQL, Lu Y, Tu K. Neighbourhood Adaptability for Hong Kong’s Ageing Population. Urban Des Int. 2018;24(3):187–205
  11. Laatikainen TE, Haybatollahi M, Kyttä M. Environmental, Individual and Personal Goal Influences on Older Adults’ Walking in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;16(1):1–19
  12. Solbraa AK, Anderssen SA, Holme IM, Kolle E, Hansen BH, Ashe MC. The Built Environment Correlates of Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Norwegian Adults: A Cross-sectional Study. J Sport Heal Sci. 2018;7(1):19–26
  13. Sanders GJ, Roe B, Knowles ZR, Kaehne A, Fairclough SJ. Using Formative Research with Older Adults to Inform a Community Physical Activity Programme: Get Healthy, Get Active. Prim Heal Care Res Dev. 2018;1–10
  14. Chudyk AM, McKay HA, Winters M, Sims-Gould J, Ashe MC. Neighborhood Walkability, Physical Activity, and Walking for Transportation: A Cross-sectional Study of Older Adults Living on Low Income. BMC Geriatr. 2017;17(1–14)
  15. Huang R, Moudon A V, Zhou C, Saelens BE. Higher Residential and Employment Densities are Associated with more Objectively Measured Walking in the Home Neighborhood. J Transp Heal. 2019;12:142–51
  16. United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat). Improving the Quality of Life of the Elderly and Disabled in Human Settlements. Nairobi: United Nations Habitat; 1993
  17. Eryl JS. Ageing and the City: Making Urban Spaces Work for Older People. London: HelpAge International; 2016
  18. Pemerintah Republik Indonesia. Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia Nomor 43 Tahun 2004 tentang Pelaksanaan Upaya Peningkatan Kesejahteraan Sosial Lanjut Usia. Indonesia; 2004
  19. Burton E, Mitchell L. Inclusive Urban Design: Streets for Life. Oxford: Architectural Press is an Imprint of Elsevier; 2006
  20. Pemerintah Republik Indonesia. Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 1 Tahun 2011 tentang Perumahan dan Kawasan Permukiman. Indonesia; 2011
  21. Rosso AL, Auchincloss AH, Michael YL. The Urban Built Environment and Mobility in Older Adults: A Comprehensive Review. J Aging Res. 2011;1–10
  22. Sun F, Norman IJ, While AE. Physical Activity in Older People: a Systematic Review. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(449):1–17
  23. Van Cauwenberg J, De Bourdeaudhuij I, De Meester F, Van Dyck D, Salmon J, Clarys P, et al. Relationship Between the Physical Environment and Physical Activity in Older Adults: A Systematic Review. Heal Place. 2011;17(2):458–69
  24. Fisher KJ, Li F, Michael Y, Cleveland M. Neighborhood-Level Influences on Physical Activity among Older Adults: A Multilevel Analysis. J Aging Phys Act. 2004;12(1):45–63
  25. Vine D, Buys L, Aird R. Experiences of Neighbourhood Walkability Among Older Australians Living in High Density Inner-City Areas. Plan Theory Pract. 2012;13(3):421–44
  26. Hirsch JA, Winters M, Clarke PJ, Ste-Marie N, McKay HA. The Influence of Walkability on Broader Mobility for Canadian Middle Aged and Older adults: An Examination of Walk ScoreTM and the Mobility Over Varied Environments Scale (MOVES). Prev Med (Baltim). 2017;95:S60–7
  27. Indradjati P, Elfrida M. The Influence of a Pedestrian-Friendly Environment on Physical Activity and Public Health Case: Margahayu Raya Housing, Bandung. J Permukim. 2020;15(1):10–8
  28. Booth ML, Owen N, Bauman A, Clavisi O, Leslie E. Social-cognitive and Perceived Environment Influences Associated with Physical Activity in Older Australians. Prev Med (Baltim). 2000;31(1):15–22
  29. Silva A, Teixeira B, Guimarães C, Pereira P, Fernandes R, Mendes F. Physical Activity And Subjective Well-Being In The Elderly. In: The European Proceeding of Social & Behavioural Sciences. Future Academy; 2018. p. 165–72
  30. McPhee JS, French DP, Jackson D, Nazroo J, Pendleton N, Degens H. Physical Activity in Older Age: Perspectives for Healthy Ageing and Frailty. Biogerontology. 2016;17(3):567–80
  31. Poggio R, Serón P, Calandrelli M, Ponzo J, Mores N, Matta MG, et al. Prevalence, Patterns, and Correlates of Physical Activity among the Adult Population in Latin America: Cross-Sectional Results from the CESCAS i Study. Glob Heart. 2016;11(1):81–8

Last update: 2021-06-18 07:53:24

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2021-06-18 07:53:24

No citation recorded.