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Pengaruh Lingkungan Terbangun terhadap Aktivitas Fisik Untuk Kesehatan Lanjut Usia

Sekolah Arsitektur, Perencanaan dan Pengembangan Kebijakan, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa No.10, Lb. Siliwangi, Kecamatan Coblong, Kota Bandung, Jawa Barat 40132, Indonesia

Open Access Copyright 2021 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Semakin meningkatnya jumlah penduduk lanjut usia, maka persoalan kesehatan pada kelompok ini menjadi isu penting di masa mendatang. Salah satu yang berkontribusi pada kesehatan lanjut usia adalah aktivitas fisiknya yang dipengaruhi tidak hanya faktor personal tetapi juga oleh faktor lingkungan terbangun. Penelitian hubungan antara lingkungan terbangun dengan aktivitas fisik dan kesehatan lanjut usia banyak dilakukan, khususnya di negara maju, namun pada kondisi sosial ekonomi dan karakteristik perkotaan di Indonesia masih sangat terbatas.

Metode: Penelitian ini mengeksplorasi pengaruh lingkungan terbangun terhadap aktivitas fisik/kesehatan lanjut usia pada lima kelurahan di pusat Kota Surakarta. Faktor lingkungan terbangun mencakup aksesibilitas, kenyamanan, kejelasan orientasi, keamanan dan keselamatan.  Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi dan penyebaran kuesioner pada 100 responden lanjut usia secara accidental (non-probabilistic sampling) dari jumlah populasi lanjut usia sebanyak 2417 jiwa. Analisis asosiasi dengan uji chi square dan uji somers’d untuk melihat hubungan antara aktivitas fisik dengan karakteristik personal lanjut usia dan faktor lingkungan terbangun.

Hasil: Kesehatan menjadi alasan utama usia lanjut melakukan aktivitas fisik (58% responden). Namun tingkat aktivitas fisiknya tidak berhubungan dengan karakteristik personal seperti jenis kelamin, pendidikan, dan penyakit tidak menular yang diderita (nilai signifikansi > 0.05). Faktor lingkungan terbangun yang berpengaruh pada aktivitas fisik lanjut usia adalah kemudahan menyeberang (nilai signifikansi 0,000) dan keamanan jalur penyeberangan (nilai signifikansi 0,000).

Simpulan: Tidak seluruh faktor lingkungan terbangun akan mendorong lanjut usia melakukan aktivitas fisik untuk menjaga kesehatannya. Intervensi terhadap faktor keamanan dan desain penyeberangan untuk mengatasi konflik dengan kendaraan bermotor sangat penting di pusat kota.

 

ABSTRACT

Title: The Influence of the Built Environment on Physical Activity for the Health of Elderly

Background: As the number of elderly people increases, health problems in this group will become an important issue in the future. One of the factors that contribute to the health of the elderly is their physical activity which is influenced not only by personal factors but also by the built environment. Research on the relationship between the built environment and physical activity and the health of the elderly have been widely carried out, especially in developed countries; but the socio-economic conditions and urban characteristics in developing countries like Indonesia are still very limited.

Method: This research explores the influence of the built environment on the physical activity/health of the elderly in five urban villages in the center of Surakarta. Built environment factors include accessibility, level of comfort, clarity of orientation, security and safety. Data collection is carried out by observing and distributing questionnaires to 100 elderly respondents by non-probabilistic sampling from a total elderly population of 2417 people. Association analysis with the Chi-square test and Somers’s test to see the relationship between physical activity and personal characteristics of the elderly and built environment factors.

Result: Staying healthy is the main reason for elderly to do physical activity (58% of respondents). However, the level of physical activity is not related to personal characteristics such as gender, education, and non-communicable diseases (significance value > 0.05). Built environment factors that affect the physical activity of the elderly are the convenience of crossing (significance value 0.000) and the safety of the crossing (significance value 0.000).

Conclusion: Not all built environmental factors will encourage the elderly to do physical activity to maintain their health. Intervention on safety factors and crossing designs to resolve conflicts with motorized vehicles is very important in the city center.

 

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Keywords: lanjut usia; aktivitas fisik; kesehatan

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