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Analisis Risiko Kesehatan Akibat Pajanan Senyawa Nitrat dan Nitrit Pada Air Tanah di Desa Cihambulu Subang

Program Studi Magister Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia

Open Access Copyright 2022 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Penggunaan pupuk nitrogen seperti NPK dan urea pada lahan pertanian dapat menyebabkan pencemaran pada air tanah di wilayah pertanian. Pupuk nitrogen yang diaplikasikan pada tanah akan mengalami leaching terbawa air hujan masuk ke dalam tanah. Konsumsi air tanah yang mengandung nitrat dan nitrit dapat mengakibatkan dampak kesehatan seperti Blue Baby Syndrome atau Methemoglobinemia dan kanker. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis konsentrasi nitrat dan nitrit pada air tanah dan mengukur tingkat risiko kesehatan yang ditimbulkan dari kedua pajanan ini terhadap penduduk di Desa Cihambulu, Subang.

Metode: Penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Februari 2021 dengan menggunakan metode Analisis Risiko Kesehatan Lingkungan. Wawancara dilakukan kepada 123 responden dari 33 unit rumah tangga untuk memperoleh informasi berat badan, laju konsumsi dan lama tinggal responden di lokasi penelitian.. Sebanyak 33 sampel air tanah diambil  dari 33 unit rumah tangga yang telah dilakukan wawancara. Pengukuran tingkat risiko kesehatan dilakukan dengan menghitung nilai Risk Quotion (RQ) dari masing-masing kelompok responden anak, wanita dan pria dewasa. 

Hasil: Hasil analisis menunjukkan konsentrasi nitrat (NO3-N) pada air tanah berkisar antara 0,03 - 6,7 mg/L dengan rata-rata 1,38 mg/L sedangkan konsentrasi nitrit (NO2-N) pada air tanah berkisar antara 0,01 - 0,08 mg/L dengan rata-rata 0,02 mg/L. Tingkat risiko kesehatan non karsinogenik menunjukkan nilai RQ < 1 untuk 3 (tiga) kelompok responden yaitu anak, wanita dan pria dewasa.

Simpulan: Seluruh sampel air tanah masih memenuhi baku mutu dalam Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Nomor 492/Menkes/Per/IV/2010 tentang Persyaratan Kualitas Air Minum, untuk parameter nitrat dan nitrit. Tingkat risiko kesehatan non karsinogenik yang disebabkan dari kedua pajanan tersebut pada air tanah menunjukkan nilai RQ < 1 dimana kedua pajanan tersebut belum beresiko menimbukan efek merugikan bagi kesehatan.

 

ABSTRACT

Title:  Health Risk  Assessment of Nitrate and Nitrite in Groundwater in the Agricultural Area,  Cihambulu Village, Subang,

Background: The use of nitrogen fertilizers such as NPK and urea on agricultural land can cause contamination of groundwater in agricultural areas. Nitrogen fertilizer applied to the soil will be carried by rainwater into the soil. Consumption of groundwater containing nitrates and nitrites can lead to health effects such as Blue Baby Syndrome or Methemoglobinemia and cancer. This study was conducted to determine the concentration of nitrate and nitrite in groundwater and to determine the level of health risk posed by these two exposures to residents in Cihambulu Village, Subang..

Method: This study was conducted in February 2021 using the method of Environmental Health Risk Assessment. Interview were conducted with 123 respondents from 33 household units to obtain information on weight, consumption rate and length of stay of respondents in the study location. A total of 33 groundwater samples were taken from 33 household units that had been interviewed.

Result: The results shows that the concentration of nitrate (NO3-N) in groundwater ranged from 0.03 - 6.7 mg/L with an average of 1.38 mg/L while the concentration of nitrite (NO2-N) in groundwater ranged from 0.01 - 0.08 mg/L with an average of 0.02 mg/L. The level of non-carcinogenic health risk shows an RQ value < 1 for 3 (three) groups of respondents, namely children, women and adult men.

Conclusion: All groundwater samples contain nitrate and nitrite within acceptable limits according to the requirements in the Regulation of the Minister of Health Number 492/Menkes/Per/IV/2010 concerning Requirements for Drinking Water Quality, especially nitrate and nitrite requirementrs. The level of non-carcinogenic health risk caused by this exposures to groundwater shows an RQ value < 1 where the two exposures are not at risk of causing adverse health effects. 

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Keywords: Health Risk Assessment; Nitrate; Nitrite
Funding: Kementerian Riset dan Teknologi/Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional

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