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Study of Government’s Strategy on Clean Water Availability in Indonesia

1Department Of Government, Faculty Social and Politic, University Mulawarman, Samarinda 75119, Kalimantan, Indonesia

2Department Of Social Humanities, Universitas Putera Batam. Jalan R. Soeprapto, Muka Kuning, Batam. Kode Pos 29452, Indonesia

3Program Studi Fisika, Fakultas Matematika Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Andalas Padang, Indonesia

4 Government Science, Faculty of Social and Politic, Universitas Mulawarman., Indonesia

5 E-Governance and Sustainability Institute ESI, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Open Access Copyright 2022 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Tujuan tulisan ini adalah mengkaji dan menganalisis strategi pemerintah dalam menjaga dan mengelola sumber daya air dalam mencapai ketersediaan air bersih di Indonesia, mengingat peristiwa perubahan iklim juga dapat meningkatkan krisis air. Pemanfaatan air secara terus menerus dan terbatasnya jumlah air yang dapat dieksplorasi dan dikonsumsi dipengaruhi oleh jumlah penduduk yang menyebabkan meningkatnya kebutuhan air. Tulisan ini meninjau secara filosofis dan konseptual yang akan menggabungkan perspektif dari langkah-langkah praktis di tingkat dasar seperti strategi perlindungan berupa kebijakan yang telah dibuat seperti Regulasi, Pengelolaan (dalam pengelolaan akan dikaji sejauh mana campur tangan manusia/pemerintah dalam menjaga kesehatan Ekosistem Lingkungan, termasuk sumber air dan sejauh mana pemanfaatannya, kemudian metode apa yang dipakai dan disepakati oleh pemangku kepentingan dalam memastikan kebutuhan air sehingga dapat terpenuhi), evaluasi dan usaha menjaga/melindungi sumber air.

Metode: Metode penelitian ini menggunakan analisis kualitatif dengan pengumpulan data yang dilakukan melalui studi pustaka dengan mengumpulkan berbagai bahan dari buku, jurnal, hasil penelitian, dan media (berita) yang kemudian dianalisis menggunakan model triangulasi yang terdiri dari reduksi data, penyajian data, dan penarikan kesimpulan.

Hasil: Pada pelaksanaannya, pemerintah telah melakukan pengelolaan ketersediaan air secara kuantitatif dan kualitatif dengan memperhatikan dan menentukan program prioritas dan kegiatan dalam pemanfaatan air. Hal tersebut dilakukan dengan pemantauan air sungai secara manual dan otomatis secara kontinu. Upaya selanjutnya dalam pengelolaan ialah pelaksanaan konservasi air, perlindungan pelaksanaan pengelolaan secara teknis dan nonteknis berupa kebijakan dalam pengelolaan sumber daya air seperti yang telah diatur dalam Undang-Undang No. 17 Tahun 2019 tentang Sumber daya air. Undang-undang ini memuat kebijakan yang secara tegas mengatur tentang sumber air di Indonesia, termasuk evaluasi berupa upaya pengendalian yang didasarkan dari hasil suatu penilaian bahaya dan risiko terhadap air tanah (Groundwater Hazard and Risk Assessment).

Simpulan: Secara konsep, strategi yang dupayakan telah mengarah pada terbebasnya Indonesia dari krisis air di masa sekarang dan masa mendatang sesuai dengan perlindungan/produk yang mengatur. Namun pada Pelaksanaan Pengelolaan, konservasi dilakukan secara parsial atau sebagian. Pengelolaan air tanah belum dilaksanakan secara arif dan komprehensif. Tidak adanya pendekatan yang berkelanjutan dan perubahan paradigma oleh pihak yang terlibat dalam pengelolaan ketersediaan air menjadi pemicu tidak terjalinnya koordinasi yang baik antar pemangku kepentingan. Penilaian risiko belum begitu signifikan karena tidak ada unsur kontinuitas dalam pelaksanaan pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan, baik oleh masyarakat maupun kebijakan yang mengatur.

 

ABSTRACT

Background: This paper aims to examine and analyze the government’s strategy in maintaining and managing water resources in ensuring clean water availability in Indonesia, considering that climate change can also increase the water crisis. The continuous use of water and the limited amount of water that can be explored and consumed is influenced by the population, which causes an increase in water demand. This paper reviews philosophically and conceptually by combining the perspectives of practical steps at the basic level such as protection strategies in the form of policies that have been made such as regulation, management (in management, the extent of human/government intervention in maintaining the health of environmental ecosystems, including water sources and the extent to which they are used, then what methods are used and agreed upon by stakeholders in ensuring that water needs can be met), evaluation, and efforts to maintain/protect water sources.

Methods: The research method used qualitative analysis with data collection carried out through library research by collecting various materials from books, journals, research results, and media (news). The data were then analyzed using a triangulation model consisting of data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion.

Results: In practice, the government has carried out quantitative and qualitative management of water availability by considering and determining priority programs and activities in water utilization. This is done by monitoring river water manually and automatically continuously. The next effort in management is the implementation of water conservation, protection of the implementation of technical and non-technical management in the form of policies in the management of water resources as regulated in Law No. 17 of 2019 concerning Water Resources. This law contains policies that strictly regulate water resources in Indonesia, including evaluation of control measures based on the results of an assessment of hazards and risks to groundwater (Groundwater Hazard and Risk Assessment).

Conclusion: Conceptually, the strategy sought has led to Indonesia’s freedom from water crises in the present and the future by the protection/products that regulate it. Still, it is carried out partially in the implementation of conservation management. Groundwater management has not been implemented wisely and comprehensively, and there is no appropriate approach. Then the paradigm shift by the parties involved in water availability is the trigger for the lack of good coordination between stakeholders. The risk assessment is not highly significant because there is no element of continuity in implementing management and utilization by both the community and the policies that regulate it.

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Keywords: Government; Management; Water Availability.

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