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Analisis Hubungan Sanitasi Lingkungan Terhadap Keluhan Penyakit Kulit

Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Riau, Jl Diponegoro No 1 Pekanbaru, Riau 28133, Indonesia

Open Access Copyright 2022 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Masalah sanitasi lingkungan antara lain ketersediaan air bersih, kondisi fisik rumah, keberadaan vektor dan binatang pembawa penyakit masih menjadi pemicu tingginya penyakit kulit di masyarakat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui hubungan sanitasi lingkungan terhadap keluhan penyakit kulit di masyarakat.

Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah analitik dengan desain  cross sectional. Variabel dependen adalah keluhan penyakit kulit, sedangkan variabel independen antara lain sumber air bersih dan air minum, jamban, saluran pembuangan air limbah (SPAL), kondisi rumah (tata ruang, sekat pada dapur, dinding rumah, ventilasi ruang keluarga dan kamar tidur, lubang udara pada dapur, dan kepadatan hunian kamar tidur), tanda keberadaan binatang dan vektor pembawa penyakit (tikus, kecoa, nyamuk, serangga). Pengumpulan data variabel independen dilakukan dengan wawancara dan observasi, sedangkan variabel dependen dilakukan melalui variabel dependen (keluhan penyakit kulit) dilakukan melalui pemeriksaan klinis dan hasil diagnosis oleh dokter spesialis kulit dan kelamin.  Populasi penelitian adalah seluruh masyarakat di desa Ranah. Jumlah sampel menggunakan rumus estimasi proporsi didapatkan jumlah sampel 245 orang. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling.  Data dianalisis dengan chi-square dan regresi logistik berganda.

Hasil: Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan 36,73% (95% CI: 30,69% - 42,76%) responden mengalami keluhan penyakit kulit. Analisis bivariat didapatkan hanya ventilasi tidak memenuhi syarat yang berhubungan signifikan terhadap masalah kesehatan kulit (p value 0,001). Sementara sumber air bersih dan air minum, jamban,SPAL), jenis lantai rumah, kondisi rumah lainnya dan keberadaan binatang dan vektor pembawa penyakit tidak berhubungan signifikan terhadap keluhan penyakit kulit (p value>0,05).  Analisis multivariat diperoleh hasil faktor risiko yang paling berhubungan adalah ventilasi ruang keluarga (p value 0,0001, adjusted OR 6,34), kemudian SPAL (pvalue 0,02 adjusted OR 2,51), dan keberadaan vektor pembawa penyakit (serangga) (p value 0,007 adjusted OR 2,44)

Simpulan: Penelitian ini membuktikan faktor lingkungan yang berpengaruh terhahap keluhan penyakit kulit  adalah ventilasi, sumber air minum, SPAL,  dan keberadaan serangga.

 

ABSTRACT

Title: Relationship of Environmental sanitation with Complaints of Skin Disease

Background: Environmental sanitation problems include the availability of clean water, the physical condition of the house, the presence of vectors and disease-carrying animals that still trigger high levels of skin disease in the community. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between environmental sanitation and complaints of skin diseases in the community.

Method: This study used a quantitative approach with a sectional corss study design. Data collection for the independent variables was carried out by interview and observation, while the dependent variable was carried out through clinical interviews. The environmental aspects studied were sources of clean and drinking water, latrines, sewerage (SPAL), house conditions (layout, kitchen partition, walls of permanent houses, house and bedroom ventilation, air holes in the kitchen, and room density), and signs of the presence of animals and disease-carrying vectors (rats, cockroaches, mosquitoes, insects, and flies). The number of samples was 245 people taken by purposive sampling. Data were analyzed by chi-square and multiple logistic regression.

Result: The results of this study showed that 36.73% (95% CI: 30.69% - 42.76%) of respondents had complaints of skin disease. Bivariate analysis found that only ventilation had a significant effect on skin health problems (Pvalue 0.001). Meanwhile, clean and drinking water sources, latrines, sewerage), types of house floors, other house conditions and the presence of animals and disease-carrying vectors did not have a significant relationship with skin problems (p value> 0.05). Multivatiate analysis showed that the most influential risk factors were house ventilation (p value 0.0001, adjusted OR 6.34), then SPAL (p value 0.02 adjusted OR 2.51), and the presence of disease-carrying vectors (insects) (p. value 0.007 adjusted OR 2.44)

Conclusion: Environmental factors that affect symptoms of skin disease in the community are air ventilation, SPAL, and the presence of insects. The sanitation factor was not significantly related.

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Keywords: air bersih; jamban rumah tangga; keluhan penyakit kulit; kondisi rumah
Funding: Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Riau; LPPM Universitas Riau

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