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Analisis Kesiapsiagaan Bencana Teknologi dari Pabrik X pada Aspek Proyeksi Zona Bahaya

1Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Sriwijaya, Sumatera Selatan 30862, Indonesia

2Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Indonesia, Jawa Barat 12345, Indonesia

Open Access Copyright 2023 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Kegagalan teknologi dalam industri X tidak dapat dihindari terutama karena keadaan pabrik X dengan teknologi tua dan bahan kimia sebagai bahan baku produksi yang dapat menimbulkan berbagai bahaya seperti polusi industri hingga kebakaran sehingga diperlukan manajemen bencana teknologi yang strategis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan analisis kesiapsiagaan bencana teknologi dari pabrik X pada aspek proyeksi zona bahaya.

Metode: Penelitian survei dengan rancangan cross-sectional. Sampel penelitian adalah 548 masyarakat yang termasuk dalam area risiko 0-2600 meter dari tangki penyimpanan amonia di sekitar pabrik X yang telah memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi penelitian. Data sekunder dari Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II untuk data meteorologi periode Januari – Desember  digunakan untuk proyeksi zona bahaya. Analisis data menggunakan  ALOHA (Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres) yang di plot ke Google Earth dan Peta Administrasi Kota Palembang.

Hasil: Hasil penelitian disajikan dalam distribusi frekuensi dan proyeksi zona bahaya disajikan dalam gambar yang sudah dipetakan dengan Google Earth. Analisis konsekuensi dari 4 skenario kasus terburuk ketika terjadi rupture tangki amonia, menjelaskan bahwa area risiko rupture di bawah tangki (skenario 2) 3 kali lebih luas dibanding rupture di atas tangki (skenario 1) untuk ukuran lubang diameter 1 cm. Area risiko heavy gas (skenario 4) 2 kali lebih luas dibanding dengan hasil prediksi model gaussian (skenario 3).

Simpulan: Penyusunan manajemen evakuasi berdasarkan hasil proyeksi zona bahaya dan upaya pelatihan tanggap darurat yang lebih luas akan meningkatkan tingkat kesiapsiagaan masyarakat dan manajemen bencana.

 

ABSTRACT

Title: Analysis of Technological Disaster Preparedness from Fertilizer Factory on Hazard Zone Projection Aspect

Background: Technological failure in the fertilizer industry is unavoidable mainly because of the state of the fertilizer factory with old technology and hazardous chemicals as production raw materials, so strategic technological disaster management is needed. This study aims to describe public knowledge regarding the dangers of ammonia gas dispersion and the preparation of hazard zone projections as an important input in disaster management of the technology.

Method: Survey research with cross-sectional design. The research sample was 548 people who had met the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study. Secondary data from the Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency of the Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Meteorological Station for meteorological data for the January – December period is used for hazard zone projections.

Result: Research results are presented in frequency distribution and hazard zone projections are presented in images that have been mapped with Google Earth. Consequence analysis of the 4 worst case scenarios when an ammonia tank ruptures, explains that the risk area for rupture under the tank (scenario 2) is 3 times larger than that of rupture above the tank (scenario 1) for a hole size of 1 cm diameter. The risk area for heavy gas (scenario 4) is 2 times wider than the predicted result of the gaussian model (scenario 3).

Conclusion: Preparation of evacuation management based on the results of hazard zone projections and wider emergency response training efforts will increase the level of community preparedness and disaster management

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Keywords: Bencana Teknologi; Lingkungan; Pabrik; Zona Bahaya

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