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Analisis Jaringan Stakeholder pada Pengelolaan Limbah Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun Rumah Sakit di Jakarta

1Sekolah Ilmu Lingkungan, Universitas Indonesia, Jalan Salemba Raya No.4 Jakarta Pusat 10430, Indonesia

2Direktorat Jendral Pengelolaan Sampah, Limbah dan Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun, Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan, Jakarta Timur 13410, Indonesia

Open Access Copyright 2023 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Pengelolaan Limbah Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun (LB3) rumah sakit di Jakarta masih menjadi permasalahan yang kompleks, terutama pada masa Covid-19. Apabila tidak ditangani dengan baik akan berpotensi sebagai media penyebaran virus. Pengelolaan tersebut memerlukan identifikasi LB3 dan kerjasama pengelolaan dari pemangku kepentingan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis jumlah dan jenis LB3, membandingkan kinerja pelaksanaan pengelolaan limbah dan menganalisis jaringan pemangku kepentingan dalam mengelola LB3 rumah sakit di Jakarta.

Metode: Desain penelitian kuantitatif digunakan untuk menjawab tujuan penelitian. Analisis deskriptif digunakan untuk menggambarkan jumlah limbah dan pengelolaan LB3 medis padat dari tahun 2018-2022. Metode Analytical Netwrok Theory (ANT) dengan bantuan perangkat lunak UNICET digunakan untuk menganalisis jaringan pemangku kepentingan dalam pengelolaan limbah di 4 rumah sakit (2 swasta dan 2 pemerintah) di DKI Jakarta.

Hasil: Terjadi peningkatan limbah sebesar 11-264% dengan lebih dari 90% tergolong jenis limbah infeksius pada 4 rumah sakit yang diteliti. Terdapat 1 rumah sakit swasta dan 1 rumah sakit pemerintah masih memerlukan perbaikan kinerja dalam aspek non teknis pengelolaan yaitu pendataan dan pencatatan, pelaksanaan perizinan, dan pelaksanaan ketentuan dalam izin. Nilai network centralizaiton index 8,81% menunjukkan aktor atau pemangku kepentingan tersebut tidak ada yang mendominasi atau tidak kuatnya sentralitas sebagai fasilitator di dalam jaringan. Dinas Lingkungan Hidup (DLH) adalah pemangku kepentingan yang memiliki kemampuan sebagai fasilitator paling tinggi ke aktor lain yang tidak berhubungan langsung dengannya atau dapat dikatakan bahwa para pemangku kepentingan lain dapat melalui DLH untuk berhubungan dengan aktor lainnya.

Simpulan: Peningkatan LB3 terjadi di 4 rumah sakit yang diteliti sehingga perlu adanya perbaikan kinerja dalam pengelolaan LB3. DLH merupakan pemangku kepentingan yang memiliki peran penting dalam jaringan stakeholder pengolahan LB3 rumah sakit di DKI Jakarta.

 

ABSTRACT

Title: Stakeholder Network Analysis on Hazardous and Toxic Waste Management in Hospitals in Jakarta

Background: Management of Hazardous and Toxic Waste (LB3) in hospitals in Jakarta is still a complex problem, especially during the Covid-19 period. If not handled properly, it will potentially be a medium for spreading the virus. Such management requires the identification of LB3 and management cooperation from stakeholders. This study aims to analyze the amount and type of LB3, compare the performance of waste management implementation and analyze the network of stakeholders in managing LB3 of hospitals in Jakarta.

Methods: Quantitative research design is used to answer research objectives. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the amount of waste and management of solid medical LB3 from 2018-2022. The Analytical Network Theory (ANT) method, with the help of UNICET software, was used to analyze stakeholder networks in waste management in 4 hospitals (2 private and two government) in DKI Jakarta.

Results: There was an increase in waste by 11-264%, with more than 90% classified as infectious waste types in the four hospitals studied. One private hospital and one government hospital still require performance improvement in non-technical management aspects, namely data collection and recording, implementation of permits, and implementation of permit provisions. The network centralization index value of 8.81% indicates that none of these actors or stakeholders dominates or lack centrality as facilitators in the network. The Environmental Agency (DLH) is a stakeholder who has the highest ability as a facilitator to other actors who are not directly related to him, or it can be said that other stakeholders can go through DLH to connect with other actors.

Conclusion: The increase in LB3 occurred in the four hospitals studied, so there is a need for improved performance in LB3 management. DLH is a stakeholder who has an essential role in the LB3 processing stakeholder network of hospitals in DKI Jakarta.

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Keywords: Limbah B3; Jaringan Stakeholder; Rumah Sakit

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