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Evaluasi Polusi Udara PM2.5 dan PM10 di Kota Bandung serta Kaitannya dengan Infeksi Saluran Pernafasan Akut

1Jurusan Teknik Refrigerasi & Tata Udara, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, Bandung 40559, Indonesia

2Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Melaka 76100, Malaysia

Open Access Copyright 2024 Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Polusi udara PM2.5 dan PM10 adalah salah satu polutan utama di kota-kota besar, termasuk di Kota Bandung. Salah satu dampak negatif dari polusi PM2.5 dan PM10 adalah meningkatnya kasus infeksi saluran pernafasan akut (ISPA) di wilayah terdampak. Untuk itu, penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji kaitan antara konsentrasi PM2.5 dan PM10 di kota Bandung dengan jumlah kasus ISPA yang tercatat di puskesmas yang berdekatan dengan lokasi pengujian.

Metode: Pengukuran PM2.5 dan PM10 dilakukan di tiga lokasi, dua di pusat kota, yaitu di Monumen 0 km dan Alun-alun, serta satu di Bandung utara (Di depan Terminal Dago). Pengambilan data dilakukan selama tujuh hari dari jam 08.00 hingga 16.00.

Hasil: Hasil pengukuran menunjukkan bahwa urutan konsentrasi PM2.5 dan PM10 dari yang tertinggi ke terendah adalah di Alun-alun, Monumen 0 km dan Terminal Dago. Secara umum konsentrasi PM2.5 dan PM10 di tiga lokasi masih di bawah baku mutu bila mengacu PPRI Nomor 22 tahun 2021, kecuali beberapa hari di Alun-alun. Namun bila mengacu pada standar dari WHO, konsentrasi PM2.5 di semua lokasi telah melebihi baku mutu, sedangkan untuk PM10, ada hari-hari tertentu yang di atas baku mutu. Ini artinya bila mengacu pada standard WHO, Kota Bandung darurat PM2.5, karena di semua lokasi pengukuran menunjukkan konsentrasi PM2.5 telah di atas baku mutu dari WHO.

Simpulan: Berdasarkan data kasus ISPA dari puskesmas di wilayah pengukuran menunjukkan terjadi kebalikan, dimana jumlah kasus ISPA paling banyak terjadi di daerah Dago meskipun konsentrasi PM2.5 dan PM10-nya yang paling rendah. Kasus ISPA di pusat kota tidak sebanyak di puskesmas Dago. Diduga hal ini disebabkan masyarakat yang tinggal di pusat kota tidak banyak yang berobat di Puskemas, sedangkan masyarakat yang tinggal di daerah Dago lebih banyak yang berobat ke Puskesmas di wilayahnya.

 

ABSTRACT

Title: Evaluation of PM2.5 and PM10 Air Pollution in Bandung City and its Relation to Acute Respiratory Infection

Background:PM2.5 and PM10 are two main pollutants in big cities like Bandung. The negative effects of the pollution caused by PM2.5 and PM10 has been a rise in the frequency of acute respiratory infections (ARI). Therefore, this study aims to assess the correlation between PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in Bandung city and the number of ARI cases recorded at the Puskesmas adjacent to the test site.

Methods: PM10 measurements were made in three places: one in northern Bandung (in front of Dago Terminal), two in the city center (at the 0 km Monument and Alun-alun). Data were collected for seven days, 08.00 to 16.00.

Results: The results show that the order of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations from highest to lowest is in Alun-alun, 0 km Monument and Dago Terminal. Referring to PPRI number 22 of 2021, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at all three locations remain under the standard, except for a few days in Alun-alun. However, compared to WHO guidelines, PM2.5 concentrations are always greater than the standard, but for PM10, only few days may higher than the standard. Having above average PM2.5 concentrations at each measurement, Bandung is considered in emergency state according to WHO guidelines.

Conclusion: Based on measurement data on ARI cases from Puskesmas (Public Health Center), the opposite occurred, the highest number of ARI cases occurred in the Dago area even though the PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were the lowest. There are not as many ARI cases in the city center. It is suspected that many people who live in the city canter didn’t seek treatment at the Puskemas, while more people who live in the Dago area seek treatment at the Puskesmas.

 

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Keywords: polusi udara; Kota Bandung; ISPA; baku mutu udara

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