skip to main content

Effects of Spiritual Counseling on Spiritual Health-Quality of Life in Patients with HIV/AIDS

*Ulung Hasanah  -  Postgraduate Nursing Program, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
Kusman Ibrahim  -  Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
Aat Sriati  -  Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright (c) 2019 Nurse Media Journal of Nursing

Citation Format:

Background: HIV/AIDS is a chronic and progressive disease that has complex health problems which affect the quality of life. Patients with HIV/AIDS need spiritual support to increase their spiritual health. A more effective therapeutic approach using spiritual counseling is seen as effective for improving health in chronic conditions.

Purpose: This study aimed to examine the effects of spiritual counseling on the quality of life-spiritual health in patients with HIV/AIDS.

Methods: This study employed a pre-posttest quasi-experimental design with a control group. The samples were 30 patients each in the experimental group and the control group recruited using purposive sampling. The experimental group received three sessions of spiritual counseling intervention. Data of the quality of life-spiritual health were collected using the WHOQOL-SRPB BREF and analyzed using t-test with significance <0.05.  

Results: Results indicated significant differences in the spiritual health-quality of life between the control and experimental groups. The result of paired t-test before and after the intervention in the experimental group showed a p-value of <0.05, whereas in the control group, the p-value was >0.05. After the intervention, the p-value in the experimental and control groups was <0.05, indicating significant differences between the two groups.

Conclusion: This study concluded that spiritual counseling interventions had an effect on increasing the quality of life-spiritual health in patients with HIV/AIDS. Thus, it is necessary for the hospital to consider the results of this study as one of the interventions in providing nursing care to HIV/AIDS patients.
Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: HIV/AIDS; quality of life-spiritual health; spiritual counseling
Funding: Padjadjaran University; Faculty of Nursing, Department of Nursing,

Article Metrics:

  1. Adegbola, M. (2011). Spirituality, self-efficacy, and quality of life among adults with sickle cell disease. Southern Online Journal of Nursing Research, 11(1), 5
  2. Basavaraj, K. H., Navya, M. A., & Rashmi, R. (2010). Quality of life in HIV/AIDS. Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS, 31(2), 75-80. doi: 10.4103/0253-7184.74971
  3. Bello S. I. & Bello I. K. (2013). Quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients in a secondary health care facility, Ilorin, Nigeria. Baylor University Medical Center, 26(2). doi: 10.1080/08998280.2013.11928933
  4. Caixeta, C. R. D. C. B., Nascimento, L. C., Pedro, I. C. D. S., & Rocha, S. M. M. (2012). Spiritual support for people living with HIV/AIDS: A Brazilian explorative, descriptive study. Nursing & Health Sciences, 14(4), 514-519.doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2018.2012.00705.x
  5. Cashwell, C. S., & Young, J. (2014). Integrating spirituality and religion into counseling: A guide to competent practice. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association
  6. Cates, K. (2009). Counselor spiritual competencies: An examination of counselor practices (Doctoral dissertation). Auburn-Alabama: Auburn University
  7. Chou, W. M., & Bermender, P. A. (2011). Spiritual integration in counseling training: A study of students’ perceptions and experiences. Retrieved from
  8. Corey, G. (2015). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. CA: Nelson Education
  9. Cronje, J. H., Williams, M., Steenkamp, L., Venter, D., & Elkonin, D. (2017). The quality of life of HIV-infected South African university students: Experiences with the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref. AIDS care, 29(5), 632-6
  10. Dailey, S. F., Curry, J. R., Harper, M. C., Hartwig-Moorhead, H. J., & Gill, C. S. (2011). Exploring the spiritual domain: Tools for integrating spirituality and religion in counseling [online]. Retrieved from vistas/vistas11/Article_99.pdf
  11. Dalmida, S. G., Holstad, M. M., Diiorio, C., & Laderman, G. (2011). Spiritual well-being and health-related quality of life among African-American women with HIV/AIDS. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 6(2), 139-157. doi: 10.1007/s11482-010-9122-6
  12. Deeks, S. G., Lewin, S. R., & Havlir, D. V. (2013). The end of AIDS: HIV infection as a chronic disease. Lancet (London, England), 382(9903), 1525-1533. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61809-7
  13. Degroote, S., Vogelaers, D., & Vandijck, D. M. (2014). What determines health-related quality of life among people living with HIV: An updated review of the literature. Archives of Public Health, 72(1), 40
  14. Doolittle, B. R., Justice, A. C., & Fiellin, D. A. (2018). Religion, spirituality, and HIV clinical outcomes: a systematic review of the literature. AIDS and Behavior, 22(6), 1792-1801. doi: 10.1007/s10461-016-1651-z
  15. Fayers, P. M., & Machin, D. (2015). Quality of life: the assessment, analysis and interpretation of patient-reported outcomes. John Wiley & Sons
  16. Hasanah, C. I., Zaliha, A. R., & Mahiran, M. (2011). Factors influencing the quality of life in patients with HIV in Malaysia. Quality of Life Research, 20(1), 91-100
  17. Hodge, D. R., & Roby, J. L. (2010). Sub-Saharan African women living with HIV/AIDS: an exploration of general and spiritual coping strategies. Social work, 55(1), 27-37
  18. Ibrahim, K. (2014). Improving Quality of Life of People Living with HIV Infection Through Strengthening Spiritual Aspect. A paper presented at the 4th Padjadjaran International Nursing Conference 2014. Retrieved from improving- qol_spiritual.pdf
  19. Imaduddin, A. (2017). Spirituality in the Context of Counseling. Journal of Innovative Counseling: Theory, Practice, and Research, 1(01), 1-8
  20. Imam, M. H., Karim, M. R., Ferdous, C., & Akhter, S. (2011). Health-related quality of life among the people living with HIV. Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin, 37(1), 1-6
  21. Izadbkhsh, F., & Shafiabady, A. (2016). The effectiveness of spirituality to enhance the quality of life of a group of married women. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS), 1(1), 2342-2353
  22. Jeffries IV, W. L., Okeke, J. O., Gelaude, D. J., Torrone, E. A., Gasiorowicz, M., Oster, A. M., ... & Bertolli, J. (2014). An exploration of religion and spirituality among young, HIV-infected gay and bisexual men in the USA. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 16(9), 1070-1083
  23. Kashani, F. L., Vaziri, S., Akbari, M. E., Jamshidifar, Z., Mousavi, M., & Shirvani, F. (2014). Spiritual interventions and distress in mothers of children with cancer. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 159, 224-227
  24. Kremer, H., & Ironson, G. (2014). Longitudinal spiritual coping with trauma in people with HIV: implications for health care. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 28(3), 144-154. doi: 10.1089/apc.2013.0280
  25. Kumar, A., Girish, H. O., Nawaz, A. S., Balu, P. S., & Kumar, B. V. (2013). Determinants of quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS: a cross-sectional study in central Karnataka, India. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 3(11), 1413-1418
  26. McCullough, M. E. (1999). Research on religion-accommodative counseling: Review and meta-analysis. J Counsel Psychology, 46, 1-7
  27. McGowan, J. V., Chung, R., Maulik, A., Piotrowska, I., Walker, J. M., & Yellon, D. M. (2017). Anthracycline chemotherapy and cardiotoxicity. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, 31(1), 63-75
  28. Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2012). Guidelines for sustainable implementation of HIV-IMS services (2012th ed.). Jakarta: Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia
  29. Nojomi, M., Anbary, K., & Ranjbar, M. (2008). Health-related quality of life in patients with HIV/AIDS. Archives of Iranian medicine, 11(6), 608-612
  30. Nuraeni, A., Nurhidayah, I., Hidayati, N., Sari, C. W. M., & Mirwanti, R. (2015). Spiritual needs in cancer patients. Jurnal Keperawatan Padjadjaran, 3(2), 57-66
  31. Panzini, R. G., Maganha, C., Rocha, N. S. D., Bandeira, D. R., & Fleck, M. P. (2011). Brazilian validation of the Quality of Life Instrument/spirituality, religion and personal beliefs. Revista de Saúde Pública, 45(1), 153-165.doi: 10.1590/S0034-89102011000100018
  32. Pargament, K. I., Tarakeshwar, N., Ellison, C. G., & Wulff, K. M. (2001). Religious coping among the religious: The relationships between religious coping and well‐being in a national sample of Presbyterian clergy, elders, and members. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40(3), 497-513
  33. Pinho, C. M., Dâmaso, B. F. R., Gomes, E. T., Trajano, M. D. F. C., Andrade, M. S., & Valença, M. P. (2017). Religious and spiritual coping in people living with HIV/AIDS. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 70(2), 392-399
  34. Puchalski, C., Ferrell, B., Virani, R., Otis-Green, S., Baird, P., Bull, J., ... & Pugliese, K. (2009). Improving the quality of spiritual care as a dimension of palliative care: the report of the Consensus Conference. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 12(10), 885-904. doi: 10.1089/jpm.2009.0142
  35. Rocha, N. S. D., & Fleck, M. P. D. A. (2011). Evaluation of quality of life and importance given to spirituality/religiousness/personal beliefs (SRPB) in adults with and without chronic health conditions. Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo), 38(1), 19-23.doi: 10.1590/S0101-60832011000100005
  36. Skevington, S. M., Gunson, K. S., & O’connell, K. A. (2013). Introducing the WHOQOL-SRPB BREF: Developing a short-form instrument for assessing spiritual, religious and personal beliefs within quality of life. Quality of Life Research, 22(5), 1073-1083
  37. Szaflarski, M. (2013). Spirituality and religion among HIV-infected individuals. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 10(4), 324-32. doi: 10.1007/s11904-013-0175-7
  38. Trevino, K. M., Pargament, K. I., Cotton, S., Leonard, A. C., Hahn, J., Caprini-Faigin, C. A., … & Tsevat, J. (2010). Religious coping and physiological, psychological, social, and spiritual outcomes in patients with HIV/AIDS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal findings. AIDS and Behavior, 14(2), 379-389.doi: 10.1007/s10461-007-9332-6
  39. Vanwyngaard, A. (2013). Addressing the spiritual needs of people infected with and affected by HIV and AIDS in Swaziland. Journal of Social Work in End-of-Life & Palliative Care, 9(2-3), 226-240. doi: 10.1080/15524256.2013.794064
  40. WHO. (2002). WHOQOL spirituality, religiousness and personal beliefs (srpb) field-test instrument. Retrieved from
  41. Zamaniyan, S., Bolhari, J., Naziri, G., Akrami, M., & Hosseini, S. (2016). Effectiveness of spiritual group therapy on quality of life and spiritual well-being among patients with breast cancer. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences, 41(2), 140-144

Last update:

  1. The Use of ICT in Providing HIV Services during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Study among Filipino HIV Volunteers

    Maria Charlize S Cebedo, Francesca Isabelle U Dela Cruz, Louis Zenen S Dela Cruz, Aliya Francine Q Mojica, Jerome Visperas Cleofas. Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 12 (2), 2022. doi: 10.14710/nmjn.v12i2.45753
  2. Lifestyle in People Living With HIV: A Study of Patients in Kermanshah, Iran

    Alireza Zanganeh, Nahid Khademi, Arash Ziapour, Naser Farahmandmoghadam, Neda Izadi, Shahram Saeidi, Amirreza Aghayani, Raziyeh Teimouri, Shahrzad Moghadam, Ali Khodaey, Seyed Ramin Ghasemi, Reza Pourmirza Kalhori. INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing, 60 , 2023. doi: 10.1177/00469580221150567

Last update: 2024-05-23 05:52:03

No citation recorded.