skip to main content


Muvida Muvida  -  Department Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
*Paramita Atmodiwirjo orcid scopus publons  -  Department Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
Kristanti Dewi Paramita orcid scopus  -  Department Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia

Citation Format:

This study attempts to dismantle the depth aspects produced by two-dimensional (2D) media such as paintings. as the basis for the production of three-dimensional (3D) space. In particular, we argue that painting as artwork with a flat surface can be transformed into 3D space by incorporating depth aspects. Even though it has a flat surface, painting as a 2D medium has the impression of 3D space and volume, which can be circumvented by constructing the perception of depth. To explore the production of 3D space through depth aspects, four 2D paintings were analyzed to find out how the depth aspects were constructed. The analysis reveals the perception of depth technique through interposition as the depth cues within the arrangement of layers. The analysis also reveals the color contrast as additional aspect that strengthen the perception of depth. Both the interposition and the color contrast become the important aspects that create the perception of depth in the production of the 3D space.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: depth; space production; two-dimensional; three-dimensional; interposition; color contrast

Article Metrics:

  1. Albers, J., & Weber, N. F. (2013). Interaction of color. Yale University Press
  2. Barney, N., & Sheldon, R. (2022, November 18). What is 3d (three dimensions or three-dimensional).
  3. Bloch, I. (2016). Intimacy: Eragatory’s experiments in materiality, deep texture and mood. Architectural Design, 86(6), 20–25.
  4. Durao, M. (2002). Color in space architecture. AIAA Space Architecture Symposium.
  5. Edwards, A. S. (1955). Effect of color on visual depth perception. The Journal of General Psychology, 52(2), 331–333.
  6. Foley, H. J., Bates, M., & Matlin, M. W. (1997)
  7. Sensation and perception. Routledge
  8. Froner, B., Purves, S. J., Lowell, J., & Henderson, J. (2013). Perception of visual information: The role of colour in seismic interpretation. First Break, 31(4).
  9. Itten, J., & Haagen, E. van. (1973). The art of color the subjective experience and objective rationale of color. John Wiley & Sons
  10. Kandinsky, W. (2013). Point and line to plane. Martino Publishing
  11. Montanez, T (2014). An architecture of dimensions: 2D, 3D, 4D, etc. Architecture Thesis Prep, 273.
  12. Klee, P., & Grohmann, W. (1985). Paul Klee. Harry N. Abrams
  13. McGee, B., & Park, N.-K. (2022). Colour, light, and materiality: Biophilic interior design presence in research and practice. Interiority, 5(1).
  14. VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of
  15. psychology. American Psychological Association
  16. Watson, M. R., & Enns, J. T. (2012). Depth perception. Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, 690–696.

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2024-06-16 13:00:07

No citation recorded.