skip to main content

Voter Behaviour and The Campaign Pattern of Candidates during Pandemics in Regional Head Election in Medan City, North Sumatra

*Indra Fauzan  -  Department of Political Science, Universitas Sumatra Utara, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 Politika: Jurnal Ilmu Politik under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/.

Citation Format:
Abstract

Covid-19 has influenced the process of democracy in many countries, including Indonesia, especially in the local election. The political campaign involving mass mobilisation was restricted, so the candidates were encouraged to use online media to reduce the Covid-19 spread. Based on this problem, this study aims to analyse the campaign patterns between candidates in a regional head election in Medan during a pandemic and how the candidates increase voter turnout. This study used both the qualitative method by interviewing the campaign team of the candidates in charge of online and offline media and the quantitative method by distributing the questionnaires to measure the behaviour of the voters. This study showed that the perception of popularity and electability influenced the pattern of candidate campaigns, and the low political awareness of the community influenced low participation in political campaigns and voter turnout, besides unhealthy campaigns and negative perception of local government. Therefore, although face-to-face was restricted, the candidates believed that direct meetings with the voters were only the way to influence the voter and increase political participation.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: campaign; election; communication tools; pandemic; media campaign

Article Metrics:

  1. Aaker, J., Chang, V., 2010. Obama and the Power of Social Media and Technology. The European Business Review 17–21
  2. Ahmad, T., Alvi, A., Ittefaq, M., 2019. The Use of Social Media on Political Participation Among University Students: An Analysis of Survey Results From Rural Pakistan. Sage Open 9, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019864484
  3. Bermingham, A., Smeaton, A.F., 2012. On Using Twitter to Monitor Political Sentimentand Predict Election Results, in: Proceedings of the Workshop on Sentiment Analysis Where AI Meets Psychology (SAAIP)
  4. Chadwick, A., 2017. The Hybrid Media System: Politics and Power, Published to Oxford Scholarship Online. ed. Oxford Scholarship Online, Oxford
  5. Chadwick, A., Dennis, J., Smith, A.P., 2018. Politics in the Age of Hybrid Media Power, Systems, and Media Logics, in: The Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics. Routledge, London & New York, pp. 7–22
  6. Chan, M., 2016. Social Network Sites and Political Engagement: Exploring the Impact of Facebook Connections and Uses on Political Protest and Participation. Mass Communication and Society 19, 430–451. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2016.1161803
  7. Chan, M., Chen, H.-T., Lee, F.L.F., 2017. Examining the roles of mobile and social media in political participation: A cross-national analysis of three Asian societies using a communication mediation approach. New Media and Society 19, 2003–2021
  8. Chen, B., 2018. When Elections Become Social Movements: Emerging "Citizen-Initiated" Campaigning in Taiwan, in: In Shoko Kiyohara, Kazuhiro Maeshima, Diana Owen (Eds), Internet Election Campaigns in the United States, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 165–188
  9. Coleman, S., 2005. Direct Representation: Towards a Conversational Democracy. ippr exchange
  10. Ekström, M., Olsson, T., Shehata, A., 2014. Spaces for public orientation? Longitudinal effects of Internet use in adolescence. Information, Communication & Society 17, 168–183
  11. Gibson, R.K., 2015. Party change, social media and the rise of 'citizen-initiated' campaigning. Party Politics 21, 183–197. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068812472575
  12. Graber, D.A. (Doris A., 2010. Mass Media and American Politics, 8th ed. CQ Press, Washington, DC
  13. Heywood, A., 2013. Politics, 4th ed, Palgrave foundations. Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York
  14. Holbrook, T., M., 1996. Do campaigns matter? Sage Publication, Thousand Oaks
  15. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2021. Electoral Processes: Navigating and Emerging from Crisis Global State of Democracy Thematic Paper 2021. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, Stockholm
  16. Jansen, H.J., 2004. Is the Internet Politics as Usual or Democracy's Future? Candidate Campaign Web Sites in the 2001 Alberta and British Columbia Provincial Elections. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal 9, 1–20
  17. Jensen, M., 2018. Russian Trolls and Fake News: Information Or Identity Logics? Journal of International Affairs 71, 115–124
  18. Jensen, M.J., 2017. Social Media and Political Campaigning: Changing Terms of Engagement? The International Journal of Press/Politics 22, 23–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161216673196
  19. Kaye, B.K., Johnson, T.Y., 2002. Online and in the Know: Uses and Gratifications of the Web for Political Information. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 46, 54–71. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4601_4
  20. Komisi Pemilihan Umum, 2021. Tingkat Partisipasi Pemilihan 2020 Capai 76,09 Persen [WWW Document]. URL https://www.kpu.go.id/koleksigambar/Rilis_Tingkat_Partisipasi_Pemilih_di_Pemilihan_2020_Revisi_7_Jan.pdf (accessed 7.23.21)
  21. Kruikemeier, S., 2014. How political candidates use Twitter and the impact on votes. Computers in Human Behavior 34, 131–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.01.025
  22. Lee, E.-J., Shin, S.Y., 2012. Are They Talking to Me? Cognitive and Affective Effects of Interactivity in Politicians' Twitter Communication. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking 15, 515–535
  23. Nekmat, E., Gower, K.K., Zhou, S., Metzger, M.J., 2019. Connective-Collective Action on Social Media: Moderated Mediation of Cognitive Elaboration and Perceived Source Credibility on Personalness of Source. Communication Research 46, 62–87
  24. Norris, P., 2004. The evolution of election campaigns: Eroding political engagement? Presented at the Political Communications in the 21st Century, St Margaret's College, University of Otago, New Zealand
  25. Opeibi, T., 2019. The Twittersphere as Political Engagement Space: A Study of Social Media Usage in Election Campaigns in Nigeria. Digital Studies/Le champ numérique 9, 6. https://doi.org/10.16995/dscn.292
  26. Patrick, L., 1989. Contrasts in Presidential Campaign Commercials of 1988: Bush Ad ... American Behavioral Scientist 32, 26
  27. Sang, E.T.K., Bos, J., 2012. Predicting the 2011 Dutch Senate Election Results with Twitter, in: Proceedings of SASN. Presented at the Workshop on Semantic Analysis in Social Network
  28. Sisk, T.D., 2017. Elections, Electoral Systems and Party Systems. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, Stockholm
  29. Spierings, N., Jacobs, K., 2014. Getting Personal? The Impact of Social Media on Preferential V. Political Behavior 36, 215–234
  30. Stromer-Galley, J., 2004. Interactivity-as-Product and Interactivity-as-Process. The Information Society 20, 391–394
  31. Stromer-Galley, J., 2000. On-line interaction and why candidates avoid it. Journal of Communication 50, 111–132
  32. Sundar, S.S., Kalyanaraman, S., Brown, J., 2003. Explicating Web Site Interactivity: Impression Formation Effects in Political Campaign Sites. Communication Research 30, 30–59
  33. Towner, T.L., Dulio, D.A., 2011. The Web 2.0 Election: Does the Online Medium Matter? Journal of Political Marketing 10, 165–188. https://doi.org/10.1080/15377857.2011.540220
  34. Tsakalidis, A., Papadopoulos, S., Kompatsiaris, I., 2015. Predicting Elections for Multiple Countries Using Twitter and Polls. Intelligent Systems, IEEE 30, 10–17. https://doi.org/10.1109/MIS.2015.17
  35. West, D.M., 1994. Television Advertising in Election Campaigns. Political Science Quarterly 109, 789. https://doi.org/10.2307/2152532

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.