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Negara, Gerakan Islam Pasca-Fundamentalis dan Masa Depan Demokrasi di Indonesia: Kekuasaan Simbolik dan Upaya Konsolidasi

*Yuseptia Angretnowati  -  Departemen Ilmu Komunikasi, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Meike Lusye Karolus  -  Departemen Ilmu Komunikasi, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 Politika: Jurnal Ilmu Politik under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/.

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Abstract

Artikel ini menjelaskan politik menjaga pluralisme agama yang selama ini digunakan pemerintahan Joko Widodo untuk memperoleh legitimasi atas kebijakan melarang organisasi kemasyarakatan yang dianggap berseberangan dengan Pancasila sebagai ideologi negara. Penelitian ini berfokus pada kasus politik pelarangan yang dialamatkan pada gerakan kewarganegaraan Islam pasca-fundementalis yaitu Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI) dan tidak diperpanjangnya status legal Front Pembela Islam (FPI). Kedua kasus ini merupakan fragmen dari bekerjanya sistem politik yang tidak liberal. Upaya mendapatkan dan mengukuhkan legitimasi ini dapat dibaca dengan dua cara: 1) upaya rezim dalam mengonsolidasikan kekuasaan; dan 2) memerangi gerakan konservatif. Efektivitas kedua tujuan ini dapat ditakar melalui kemampuan dalam memainkan kekuasaan simbolik. Studi mengenai legitimasi dalam merespons gerakan Islam politik di Indonesia ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan perspektif interpretif dengan menggunakan 2 pendekatan, yakni melacak sumber-sumber kekuasaan simbolik dan menakar performatif kekuasaan simbolik tersebut melalui pemikiran Bourdieu mengenai politik publik. Hasil penelitian menunjukan wacana menjaga pluralisme menyimpan ambiguitas serta alasan terbentuknya kohesivitas di atas kebijakan populis dan tidak liberal tersebut di antara elit politik dan mayoritas yang terbelah.

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Keywords: konsolidasi demokrasi; legitimasi; Islamisme pasca-fundamentalis; politik kewarganegaraan; kekuasaan simbolik

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