skip to main content

Bus Rapid Transport System in Semarang City: Views of Current Users, Potential Users and Related Emission

*Haryono Setiyo Huboyo orcid scopus publons  -  Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Wiwandari Handayani  -  Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Budi Prasetyo Samadikun  -  Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Didin Agustian Permadi  -  Institut Teknologi Nasional, Indonesia

Citation Format:

Abating the air emission related to the transportation sector by operation of the Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) system has been adopted in Indonesia. This study was conducted to obtain an overview of the implementation of BRT, the success of shifting private vehicles to BRT, and the number of emissions resulting from the operation of BRT. The study was conducted using a questionnaire and observations in BRT vehicles. A questionnaire survey was conducted randomly across Semarang sub-districts for 701 private vehicles consisting of cars and motorcycles in a parking lot. Questionnaires were distributed to BRT users in the waiting room and among those who left the BRT. The emission quantity is obtained from GPS observations installed in the BRT and quantified by the emission generation equation based on the bus speed. Even though they are not BRT users for daily activities, motorcycle users use BRT more frequently than private car users. For the private car and motorcycle users, the BRT coverage area is the first barrier to using the BRT system, followed by travel time (due to congestion and traffic jams). Based on current BRT users, the shifting of motorcycle users is far higher than private car users. About 30% of public transport users (besides BRT) shift to BRT users. The BRT emissions (CO and TSP) in the east-west corridor on weekdays and weekends are higher than those in the south-north corridor. Based on this study's results, the BRT application has not significantly reduced the use of private vehicles. Instead, shifting occurs from former public transport to BRT. BRT emissions are related to traffic route conditions and topography. BRT implementation needs to comprehensively consider social, economic and technical (infrastructure) aspects.  

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: BRT; emission; route; Semarang; transportation
Funding: Partially funded by PNBP DIPA Diponegoro University

Article Metrics:

  1. Abbasi, M.H., Hadji Hosseinlou, M., JafarzadehFadaki, S.M., 2020. An investigation of bus rapid transit system (BRT) based on economic and air pollution analysis (Tehran, Iran). Case Studies Transport Policy 8, 553–563
  2. Bian, J.W., Ding, M., 2012. The effectiveness of the construction of the bus rapid transit in Xiamen city. Sustainable Transport for Chinese Cities, Emerald Group Publishing Limited
  3. Currie, G., Delbosc, A., 2011. Understanding bus rapid transit route ridership drivers: an empirical study of Australian BRT systems. Transport Policy 18, 755–764
  4. Dantas, R., Dantas, J., Melo, C., Maciel, P., 2021. Performance evaluation in BRT systems: an analysis to predict the BRT systems planning. Case Studies on Transport Policy 9, 1141–1150
  5. European Environment Agency, 2021. EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019 (Passenger cars, light commercial trucks, heavy-duty vehicles including buses and motorcycles) 1, 144
  6. Hensher, D.A., 2007. Sustainable public transport systems: moving towards a value for money and network-based approach and away from blind commitment. Transport Policy 14, 98–102
  7. Hidalgo, D., Pereira, L., Estupiñán, N., Jiménez, P.L., 2013. TransMilenio BRT system in Bogota, high performance and positive impact - main results of an ex-post evaluation. Research Transportation Economics 39, 133–138
  8. Huboyo, H.S., Handayani, W., Samadikun, B.P., 2017. Potential air pollutant emission from private vehicles based on vehicle route. IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science 70
  9. Jaensirisak, S., Klungboonkrong, P., 2009. Why bus rapid transit (BRT) is interested by transport planners and travellers in Thailand. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies 7, 266–266
  10. Joseph, L., Neven, A., Martens, K., Kweka, O., Wets, G., Janssens, D., 2021. Exploring changes in mobility experiences and perceptions after implementation of the bus rapid transit system in Dar es Salaam. Case Studies on Transport Policy 9, 930–938
  11. Jun, M.J., 2012. Redistributive effects of bus rapid transit (BRT) on development patterns and property values in Seoul, Korea. Transport Policy 19, 85–92
  12. Kent, A., 2021. Moving the masses: bus-rapid transit (BRT) policies in low income Asian Cities. case studies from Indonesia. Urban Policy and Research 39, 309–311
  13. Levinson, H., Zimmerman, S., Clinger, J., Rutherford, S., Smith, R.L., Cracknell, J., Soberman, R., 2003. Bus rapid transit. Transit Cooperative Research Program 1, report 90
  14. Malik, B.Z., Rehman, Z. ur, Khan, A.H., Akram, W., 2021. Investigating users’ travel behaviours and perceptions of single-corridor BRT: Lessons from Lahore. Journal of Transport Geography 91, 102942
  15. Nguyen, Y.L.T., Nghiem, T.D., Le, A.T., Duc, K.N., Nguyen, D.H., 2021. Emission characterization and co-benefits of bus rapid transit: a case study in Hanoi, Vietnam. Atmospheric Pollution Research 12, 101148
  16. Nugroho, S.B., Fujiwara, A., Zhang, J., 2010. The influence of BRT on the ambient PM10 concentration at roadside sites of Trans Jakarta Corridors. Procedia Environmental Science 2, 914–924
  17. Pedro, M.J.G., Macário, R., 2016. A review of general practice in contracting public transport services and transfer to BRT systems. Research Transportation Economics 59, 94–106
  18. Prestes, O.M., Ultramari, C., Caetano, F.D., 2022. Public transport innovation and transfer of BRT ideas: Curitiba, Brazil as a reference model. Case Studies on Transport Policy 10, 700–709
  19. Refaramadhani, 2016. Bus rapid trans (BRT) Semarang
  20. Satiennam, T., Jaensirisak, S., Satiennam, W., Detdamrong, S., 2016. Potential for modal shift by passenger car and motorcycle users towards bus rapid transit (BRT) in an Asian developing city. IATSS Research 39, 121–129
  21. Subiyanto, S., Janu Amarrohman, F., 2018. Spatial studies and juridical utilization of vacant land and abandoned land control in efforts of regional authority in Semarang city. MATEC Web Conference 159
  22. Triviño, J.M., Garcia, W.C., 2021. General guidelines for the design of BRT routes in the public transport integrated System of Bogota. Transportation Research Procedia 58, 622–629

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2024-05-24 01:37:19

No citation recorded.