PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN METODE GELEMBUNG TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK PRODUK EKSTRAK BUNGA ROSELA

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/reaktor.16.2.96-102
Copyright (c) 2016 REAKTOR

Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)

Article Info
Submitted: 21-06-2016
Published: 16-08-2016
Section: Research Article
Fulltext PDF Tell your colleagues Email the author
Bunga rosela mengandung senyawa antosianin berwarna merah yang kaya antioksidan. Senyawa ini dapat diekstrak dan dikemas dalam bentuk serbuk kering sebagai bahan pewarna makanan dan minuman. Produksi serbuk ekstrak bunga rosela dengan pengeringan konvensional masih menghadapi kendala karena sifatnya yang tidak tahan panas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh pengeringan dengan metode gelembung terhadap sifat fisik ekstrak bunga rosela. Pada proses ini, bunga rosela diekstrak dengan air pada perbandingan 1:10 pada suhu 50oC selama 1 jam. Filtrat yang kaya antosianin dicampur dengan bahan pembentuk gelembung (putih telur) dan penstabil yaitu gliserol mono stearat (GMS). Campuran ini kemudian dikeringkan dengan udara pada temperatur yang berbeda. Dibandingkan dengan pengeringan ekstrak roselle tanpa gelembung, adanya putih telur dan GMS  mampu mempercepat proses penguapan air dari ekstrak yang dikeringkan. Penguapan menjadi lebih cepat pada suhu yang lebih tinggi. Namun demikian, dari penampakan fisik terlihat bahwa pada suhu diatas 70oC, warna ekstrak mulai kehitam-hitaman (akibat karbonasi), serta serbuk yang dihasilkan lebih rapuh

Keywords

gelembung, karbonasi, organoleptik, putih telur, Scanning Electron Microscope

  1. Mohamad Djaeni  Scholar
    Jurusan Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
  2. Meilya Suzan Triyastuti 
    Mahasiswa Program Studi Magister Jurusan Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia

    Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro

    Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Kampus Undip Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia 50275
  3. Hadiono Soegeng Rahardjo 
    Akademi Entrepreneurship Terang Bangsa Jl. Arteri Utara Kompleks Grand Marina, Semarang, Indonesia 50144, Indonesia
    Akademi Entrepreneurship Terang BangsaJl. Arteri Utara Kompleks Grand Marina, Semarang, Indonesia 50144
  1. Al-Soufi,W., Peneiro, L., and Novo, M., (2012), A Model for Monomer and Micellar Concentration in Surfactant Solution, Journal Colloid Interface Science. Vol 370, pp. 102-110.
  2. Djaeni, M., S.B. Sasongko, A.A. Prasetyaningrum, X. Jin, and A.J. van Boxtel., (2012), Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality, International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 8: Iss. 3, Article 32.
  3. Djaeni, M., Suherman, and Sumardiono, S. (2014). Advance Drying Technology for Heat Sensitive Products. Monograph. UNDIP Press, ISBN: 978-979-704-832-7
  4. Djaeni, M., Prasetyaningrum, A., Sasongko, S.B., Widayat, W., Hii, C.L., (2015), Application of Foam-Mat Drying with Egg White for Carrageenan: Drying Rate and Product Quality Aspects, Journal Food Science Technology, 52(2), pp. 1170 -1175.
  5. Falade, K.O., Adeyanju, K.L., and Uzo-Peters, P.L., (2003), Foam-Mat Drying of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata) Using Glyceryl Monostearate and Egg Albumin as Foaming Agents. European Food Research Technology, 217, pp. 486-491.
  6. Falade, K.O., and J.O. Okocha., (2012), Foam-mat drying of plantain and cooking banana (Musa spp.), Food and Bioprocess Technology, Vol. 5, Iss. 4 , pp. 1173-1180
  7. Hayati, R., Nurhayati, dan Annisa, N., (2011), Pengaruh Suhu Pengeringan Terhadap Mutu Rosella Kering, Jurnal Floratek, 6, pp. 1-7.
  8. Houghton, J.D. and Hendry, G.A.F., (1996), Natural Food Colourants, ISBN 9781461359005, Springer, pp. 40-79.
  9. Isnaini, L., (2010), Ekstraksi Pewarna Merah Cair Alami Berantioksidan Dari Kelopak Bunga Rosella dan Aplikasinya pada Produk Pangan, Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 18-28.
  10. Jaya, S. and Das, H., (2004), Effect of Maltodextrin, Glycerol Monostearate and Tricalcium Phosphate on Vacuum Dried Mango Powder Properties, Journal of Food Engineering, 63(2), pp. 125-134.
  11. Kadam, D.M., Patil, R.T., and Kaushik, P., 2010, Foam Mat Drying of Fruit and Vegetable Products, in Drying of Foods,Vegetables and Fruits, Vol 1, editor. Jangam, S.V., Law, C.L. and Mujumdar, A.S., ISBN - 978-981-08-6759-1, Published in Singapore, pp. 111-124.
  12. Kudra, T and Ratti, C., (2006), Foam-mat drying: Energy and cost analysis, Canadian Biosystem Engineering, 48, pp. 3.27-3.32
  13. Liang, Y., and Kristinsson, H.G., (2007), Structural and Foaming Properties of Egg Albumen Subjected to Different pH-Treatments in The Presence of Calcium Ions, Food Research International, Vol. 40, pp. 668-687.
  14. Li-Chan E.C.Y., Powrie W.D., Nakai, S., 1995, The chemistry of eggs and egg products in Egg Science and Technology, editor Stadelman, W.J. and Cotterill, O. J., Fourth Edition, The Haworth Press, Inc., New York, NY, 105–175.
  15. Muthukumaran, A., (2007), Foam-Mat Freeze Drying of Egg White and Mathematical Modeling Department of Bioresource Engineering. Macdonald Campus of McGill University, pp. 6-18.
  16. Ojeda, D., Ferrer, E.J., Zamilpa, A., Arellano, A.H, Tortoriello, J., and Alvarez, L., (2009), Inhibition of Angiotensin Corvertin Enzyme (ACE) Activity by The Anthocyanins Delphinidin- and Cyanidin-3-O-Sambubiosides from Hibiscus Sabdariffa, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 127, pp. 7-10.
  17. Raharitsifa, N., Genovese, D.B., and Ratti, C., (2006), Characterization Of Apple Juice Foams For Foam-Mat Drying Prepared With Egg White Protein And Methylcellulose, Journal of Food Science. 71(3), pp. E142-E151
  18. Rajkumar, P.; R. Kaliappan, R. Viswanathan, and G.S.V. Raghavan, (2007), Studies on foam mat drying of alphonso mango pulp, Journal of Food Engineering, 79(4), pp. 1452-1459
  19. Schramm, L.L., and Green, W.H.F., (1995), The Influence of Marangoni Surface Elasticity on Gas Mobility Reductions by Foams in Porous Media, Colloids and Surfaces A Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 94, pp. 13-28.
  20. Stadelman, W.J. and Cotterill. O.J., (1995), Egg Science and Technology, 4th edition, Food Products Press, An Imprint of Haworth, Inc. New York.
  21. Thommes, M., W. Blaschekb and P. Kleinebuddea., (2007), Effect of drying on extruded pellets based on κ-carrageenan, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 31(2), pp. 112-118
  22. Thuwapanichayanan, R., Prachayawarakorn, S., and Soponronnarit, S., (2007), Drying Characteristics and Quality of Banana Foam Mat, Elsevier Journal of Food Engineering, 86, pp. 573-583.
  23. Wilde, P.J. and Clark, D.C., (1996), Foam Formation And Stability, In Methods of Testing Protein Functionality, G. M. Hall, Blackie Academic and Professional, New York, pp. 111 - 152.