FRACTIONATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM KAFFIR LIME (Citrus hystrix) PEEL EXTRACT AND EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

Yusak Adi Wijaya -  Chemical Engineering Department, Widya Mandala Catholic University Surabaya, Indonesia
Daniel Widyadinata -  Chemical Engineering Department, Widya Mandala Catholic University Surabaya, Indonesia
*Wenny Irawaty -  Chemical Engineering Department, Widya Mandala Catholic University Surabaya, Indonesia
Aning Ayucitra -  Chemical Engineering Department, Widya Mandala Catholic University Surabaya, Indonesia
Received: 23 Jan 2017; Published: 3 Oct 2017.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2017 REAKTOR
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Abstract
Side effects of drug-based treatment observed in patients during degenerative diseases treatments has directed towards to the identification of plants with antioxidant activity. Kaffir lime peel was selected in this study. This work was aimed to investigate the effect of solvent (hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) polarity on the fractionation of ethanolic crude extract and assess its antioxidative property by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The results show semi polar solvent of ethyl acetate exhibited the best solvent to extract phenolic compounds from ethanolic kaffir lime peel with total phenolic content detected was 0.12 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent/mg. The employment of solvents possessing different polarity resulted several fractions, i.e. hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and residue with different type of phenolic compounds in each fraction. Accordingly, each fraction exhibited different antioxidant activity against free radical compound of DPPH. The N-butanol fraction demonstrated the strongest activity which is shown by lowest IC50 value among the fractions tested. The fraction of n-butanol exhibited the IC50 value of 0.44 mg/mL which means that only 0.44 mg of the fraction/mL is required to inhibit the neutralization of DPPH by 50%. Phenolic identification by High Performance Liquid Chromatography indicates the different phenolic compounds in each fraction that contribute to antioxidative property to different extent. Further investigation to identify these phenolic compounds will lead to further development of kaffir lime as natural antioxidant to treat specific degenerative diseases.

Other format:

Keywords
antioxidant; fractionation; kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix); peel

Article Metrics:

Article Info
Section: Research Article
Language: EN
Full Text:
Statistics: 1493 2117
  1. Anagnostopoulou, M.A., Kefalas, P., Papageorgiou, V.P., Assimopoulou, A.N., and Boskou, D., (2006), Radical Scavenging Activity of Various Extracts and Fractions of Sweet Orange Peel (Citrus Sinensis), Food Chemistry, 94, pp. 19-25.
  2. Baniasadi, H., Vlahakis, C., Hazebroek, J., Zhong, C., and Asiago, V., (2014), Effect of Environment and Genotype on Commercial Maize Hybrids Using Lc/Ms-Based Metabolomics, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(6), pp. 1412-1422.
  3. Barchan, A., Bakkali, M., Arakrak, A., Pagán, R., and Laglaoui, A., (2014), The Effects of Solvents Polarity on the Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Three Mentha Species Extracts, International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3(11), pp. 399-412.
  4. Chan, S.W., Lee, C.Y., Yap, C.F., Aida, W.M.W., and Ho, C.W., (2009), Optimisation of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds from Limau Purut (Citrus Hystrix) Peels, International Food Research Journal, 16, pp. 203-213.
  5. Gadkari, P.V., and Balaraman, M., (2015), Catechins: Sources, Extraction and Encapsulation: A Review, Food and Bioproducts Processing, 93, pp. 122-138.
  6. Garg, A., Garg, S., Zaneveld, L.J.D., and Singla, A.K., (2001), Chemistry and Pharmacology of the Citrus Bioflavonoid Hesperidin, Phytotherapy Research, 15(8), pp. 655-669.
  7. Gebruers, K., Dornez, E., Bedo, Z., Rakszegi, M., Courtin, C.M., and Delcour, J.A., (2010), Variability in Xylanase and Xylanase Inhibition Activities in Different Cereals in the Healthgrain Diversity Screen and Contribution of Environment and Genotype to This Variability in Common Wheat, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(17), pp. 9362-9371.
  8. Gorinstein, S., Martı́n-Belloso, O., Lojek, A., Ĉı́ž, M., Soliva-Fortuny, R., Park, Y.-S., Caspi, A., Libman, I., and Trakhtenberg, S., (2002), Comparative Content of Some Phytochemicals in Spanish Apples, Peaches and Pears, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82(10), pp. 1166-1170.
  9. Irawaty, W., Soetaredjo, F.E., Ayucitra, A., Sianto, M.E., Jonathan, K., Hartono, C.D., Setyabudi, C., and Tanda, S., (2014), Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Ethanolic Citrus Hystrix Peel Extract: Optimization of Extraction Conditions, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 8(14), pp. 85-89.
  10. Jamilah, B., Man, Y.B.C., and Ching, T.L., (2007), Antioxidant Activity of Citrus Hystrix Peel Extract in Rbd Palm Oleen During Frying of Fish Crackers, Journal of Food Lipids, 5(2), pp. 149-157.
  11. Kanatt, S.R., Chander, R., and Sharma, A., (2007), Antioxidant Potential of Min (Mentha Spicata L.) in Radiation Processed Lamb Meat, Food Chemistry, 100, pp. 451-458.