skip to main content


Mega Sari Juane Sofiana  -  Marine Science Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Tanjungpura, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia
Ikha Safitri scopus  -  Marine Science Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Tanjungpura, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia
*Warsidah Warsidah  -  Marine Science Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Tanjungpura, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia
Shifa Helena  -  Marine Science Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Tanjungpura, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia
Sy Irwan Nurdiansyah  -  Marine Science Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Tanjungpura, Indonesia

Citation Format:

Free radicals contribute to human health problem resulting in various human diseases, including central nervous system injury, cancer, inflammations, and the decrease of organ function related to oxidation. This condition has encouraged the effort of finding new natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory sources. Macroalgae act as excellent natural resources due to their bioactive potential with diverse applications in various fields. Eucheuma cottonii belonging to Rhodophyceae grow abundantly along Lemukutan Island waters, however, their existence has not been exploited. This study aims to evaluate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract of E. cottonii from Lemukutan Island waters, West Kalimantan. The observation of antioxidant activity was done using the method of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) with UV-vis spectrophotometer, while anti-inflammatory acyivity activity was determined using the RBCs membrane stability method. The ethanolic extract of E. cottonii had potential antioxidant activity with IC50 of 127.75 ppm and was classified as moderate category. Extracts showed also anti-inflammatory acyivity activity with the concentration of 219.83 ppm. Red macroalgae E. cottonii can be used as potential natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; ethanol; Eucheuma cottonii; Lemukutan Island

Article Metrics:

  1. Abdalla, E.O. and Shigidi, M.T.A. (2019). Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity of Methanolic Extracts of Selected Red Sea Macroalgae Exhibited Antimicrobial Activities. Haya: The Saudi Journal of Life Sciences, 4(1): 39-44
  2. Abdelwahab, R. (2017). Therapeutic and pharmaceutical application of seaweeds. In: Biotechnological Applications of Seaweeds, 85-116
  3. Abdolghaffari, A.H. (2010). On the benefit of Teucrium in murine colitis through improvement of toxic inflammatory mediators. Human Exp. Toxicol., 29: 287-295
  4. Afonso, N.C., Catarino, M.D., Silva, A.M.S., Cardoso, S.M. (2019). Brown Macroalgae as Valuable Food Ingredients. Antioxidants, 8(365): 1-26. doi: 10.3390/antiox8090365
  5. Ak, I and Türker, G. (2019). Antioxidant Activities of Eucheuma sp. (Rhodophyceae) and Laminaria sp. (Phaeophyceae). Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 7(sp1): 154-159. DOI:
  6. Anggadiredja, J.T.; Zatnika, A.; Purwoto, H.; dan Istini, S. (2008). Rumput Laut, Pembudidayaan, Pengolahan, dan Pemasaran Komoditas Perikanan Potensial. Jakarta : Penebar Swadaya. 147 hlm
  7. Arunkumar, K., Raja, R., Kumar, V.B.S., Joseph, A., Shilpa, T., Carvalho, I.S. (2020). Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of sulfated polysaccharides from five different edible seaweeds. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 15: 567–576
  8. Bakir, S., Catalkaya, G., Ceylan, F.D., Khan, H., Guldiken, B., Capanoglu, E., Kamal, M.A. (2020). Role of dietary antioxidants in neurodegenerative diseases: Where are we standing? Curr. Pharm. Des
  9. Banerjee, A., Dasgupta, N., De, B. (2005). In vitro study of antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini fruit. Food Chem. 90: 727-733
  10. Bangngalino, H. and Badai, M. (2018). Analisis kandungan dan aktivitas antioksidan pada rumput laut Eucheuma cottoni yang diekstraksi dengan pelarut etanol. Prosiding Seminar Hasil Penelitian (SNP2M), 162-166
  11. Bhuyar, P., Rahim, M.H., Sundararaju, S., Maniam, G.P., Govindan, N. (2020). Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of red seaweed; Kappaphycus alvarezii against pathogenic bacteria. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 6(1): 47-58
  12. Biris-Dorhoi, E., Michiu, D., Pop, C.R., Rotar, A.M., Tofana, M., Pop, O.L., Socaci, S.A., Farcas, A.C. (2020). Macroalgae - A Sustainable Source of Chemical Compounds with Biological Activities. Nutrients, 12(3085): 1-23.doi: 10.3390/nu12103085
  13. Brown, E.M., Allsopp, P.J., Magee, P.-J., Gill, C.I.R., Nitecki, S., Strain, C.R., McSrley, E.M. (2014). Seaweed and human Health. Nutr. Rev., 72: 205-216
  14. Bungau, S., Abdel-Daim, M.M., Tit, D.M., Ghanem, E., Sato, S., Maruyama-Inoue, M., Yamane, S., Kadonosono, K. (2019). Health Benefits of Polyphenols and Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Diseases. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longe., 9783429
  15. Caleja, C., Barros, L., Antonio, A.L., Oliveira, M.B., Ferreira, I.C. (2017). A comparative study between natural and synthetic antioxidants: Evaluation of their performance after incorporation into biscuits. Food Chem., 216: 342-346
  16. Carpena, M., Caleja, C., Pereira, E., Pereira, C., C´iric´, A., Sokovic´, M., Soria-Lopez, A., Fraga-Corral, M., Simal-Gandara, J., Ferreira, I.C.F.R., Barros, L., Prieto, M.A. (2021). Red Seaweeds as a Source of Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds: Optimization of the Extraction. Chemosensors, 9: 132
  17. Catarino, M.D., Silva, A.M.S., Cardoso, S.M. (2017). Fucaceae: A Source of Bioactive Phlorotannins. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 18: 1327
  18. Chakraborty, K. and Joseph, D. (2016). Antioxidant potential and phenolic compounds of brown seaweeds Turbinaria conoides and Turbinaria ornata (class: Phaeophyceae). Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 25(8): 1249-1265
  19. Chippada, S.C., Sharan, S.V., Srinivasa, R.B., Meena, V. (2011). In Vitro Antiinflamantory Activity of Methanolic Extract of Centella Asiatica by HRBC Membrane Stabilization. RASAYAN Journal Chemistry, 4(2): 457-460
  20. Corsetto, P.A., Montorfano, G., Zava, S., Colombo, I., Ingadottir, B., Jonsdottir, R., Sveinsdottir, K., Rizzo, A.M. (2020). Characterization of Antioxidant Potential of Seaweed Extracts for Enrichment of Convenience Food. Antioxidants, 9(249): 1-15
  21. Coura, C.O., Souza, R.B., Rodrigues, J.A.G., Vanderlei, E.D.S.O., De Araújo, I.W.F., Ribeiro, N.A., Frota, A.F., Ribeiro, K.A., Chaves, H.V., Pereira, K.M.A. (2015). Mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of a polysulfated fraction from Gracilaria cornea in rats. PLoS ONE, 10: e0119319
  22. Cox, S., Abu-Ghannam, N., Gupta, S. (2010). An assessment of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of six species of edible Irish seaweeds. Int. Food Res. J., 17, 205-220
  23. Fernández-Sánchez, A., Madrigal-Santillán, E., Bautista, M., Esquivel-Soto, J., Morales-González, A., Esquivel-Chirino, C., Durante-Montiel, I., Sánchez-Rivera, G., Valadez-Vega, C., Morales-González, J.A. (2011). Inflammation, oxidative stress, and obesity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12(5): 3117-31132. doi: 10.3390/ijms12053117
  24. Fernando, I.P.S., Sanjeewa, K.K.A., Samarakoon, K.W., Lee, W.W., Kim, H-S., Ranasinghe, P., Gunasekara, U.K.D.S.S., Jeon, Y-J. (2018). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functionality of ten Sri Lankan seaweed extracts obtained by carbohydrase assisted extraction. Food Sci Biotechnol., 27(6): 1761-1769
  25. Garcia-Oliveira, P., Carreira-Casais, A., Caleja, C., Pereira, E., Calhelha, R.C., Sokovic, M., Simal-Gandara, J., Ferreira, I.C.F.R., Prieto, M.A., Barros, L. (2021). Macroalgae as an Alternative Source of Nutrients and Compounds with Bioactive Potential. Proceedings, 70: 46.
  26. Garcia-Vaquero, M., Ummat, V., Tiwari, B., Rajauria, G. (2020). Exploring ultrasound, microwave and ultrasound–microwave assisted extraction technologies to increase the extraction of bioactive compounds and antioxidants from brown macroalgae. Mar. Drugs, 18: 172
  27. Gunerken, E., D’Hondt, E., Eppink, M.H., Garcia-Gonzalez, L., Elst, K., Wijels, R.H. (2015). Cell disruption for microalgae biorefneries. Biotechnol Adv., 33: 243-260
  28. Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A.G., Juárez-Portilla, C., Olivares-Bañuelos, T., Zepeda, R.C. (2018). Anticancer activity of seaweeds. Drug Discov. Today, 23: 434-447
  29. Halliwell, B., Whiteman, M. (2004). Measuring reactive species and oxidative damage in vivo and in cell culture: how should you do it and what do the results mean? British Journal of Pharmacology 142: 231-255
  30. Imran, M.A.S., Bhuiyan, F.R., Ahmed, S.R., Shanzana, P., Moli, M.A., Foysal, S.H., Dabi, S.B., Hasan, M. (2021). Phytochemical constituency profiling and antimicrobial activity screening of seaweeds extracts collected from the Bay of Bengal Sea Coast. J. Adv. Biotechnol. Exp. Ther., 4(1): 25-34
  31. Ismail, M.M., Alotaibi, B.S., EL-Sheekh, M.M. (2020). Therapeutic Uses of Red Macroalgae. Molecules, 25(4411): 1-14
  32. Juvekar, A., Sakat, S., Wankhede, S., Juvekar, M., Gambhire, M. (2009). Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata Linn. Planta Med., 75: s-0029-1234983
  33. Kulshreshtha, G., Hincke, M.T., Prithiviraj, B., Critchley, A. (2020). A Review of the Varied Uses of Macroalgae as Dietary Supplements in Selected Poultry with Special Reference to Laying Hen and Broiler Chickens. J. Mar. Sci. Eng., 8: 536, doi: 10.3390/jmse8070536
  34. Kumar, V., Bhat Z.A., Dinesh, K., Puja, B., Sheela, S. (2011). In Vitro Anti-Inflamatory Activity of Leaf Extracts of Basella Alba Linn. Var. Alba. International Journal of Drug Development and Research, 3(2): 0975-9344
  35. Kumar, S. and Vivek, K.R. (2011). In Vitro Anti Activity of Isolated Fractions from Methanolic Extract of Asystasia dalzellina Leaves. Asian J. of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 4(3): 5253
  36. Lan, S., Jun-Jie, Y., Denys, C., Kequan, Z., Jeffrey, M., Liangli (Lucy), Y. (2007). Food Chem. 100: 990
  37. Leandro, A., Pereira, L., Gonçalves, A.M.M. (2020). Diverse Applications of Marine Macroalgae. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(17): 1-15
  38. Leelaprakash, G. and Dass, S.M. (2011). In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Enicostemma axillare. International Journal of Drug development and Research, 3
  39. Machu, L., Misurcova, L., Ambrozova, J.V., Orsavova, J., Mlcek, J., Schor, J., Jurikova, T. (2015). Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Algal Food Products. Molecules, 20: 1118-1133
  40. Molyneux P. (2004). The use of stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. Songklanakarin Journal Science Techology, 26(2): 211-219
  41. Morris, C.E. (2003). How does fertility of the substrate affect intra-specific competition? Evidence and synthesis from self-thinning. Ecol. Res, 18: 287-305
  42. Muawanah, Ahmad, A., Natsir, H. (2016). Antioxidant activity and toxicity polysaccharide extract from red algae Eucheuma cottonii and Eucheuma spinosum. International Journal Marina Chimica Acta, 17(2): 15-23
  43. Murningsih, T. and Ahmad, F. (2016). Evaluasi Aktivitas Anti-Inflamasi dan Antioksidan secara In-Vitro, Kandungan Fenolat dan Flavonoid Total pada Terminalis spp. Berita Biologi, 15(2): 159-166
  44. Neto, R.T., Marçal, C., Queirós, A.S., Abreu, H., Silva, A.M.S., Cardoso, S.M. (2018). Screening of Ulva rigida, Gracilaria sp., Fucus vesiculosus and Saccharina latissima as Functional Ingredients. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 19: 2987
  45. Oyedapo, O.O., Akinpelu, B.A., Akinwunmi, K.F., Adeyinka, M.O., Sipeolu, F.O. (2010). Red Blood Cell Membran Stabilizing Potentials Of Extracts Of Lantana Camara and Its Fractions, International J. of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2 (4): 46-51
  46. Pooja, S. (2014). Algae used as Medicine and Food-A Short Review. J. Pharm. Sci. & Res., 6(1): 33-35
  47. Pratiwi, Y. and Lingkungan, J.T. (2010). Penentuan tingkat pencemaran limbah industri tekstil berdasarkan. Jurnal Teknologi, 3(2): 129-137
  48. Prasasty, V.D., Haryani, B., Hutagalung, R.A., Mulyono, N., Yazid, F., Rosmalena, R., Sinaga, E. (2019). Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities from Red Seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii). Sys. Rev. Pharm., 10(l): 276-288
  49. Rickert, E., Wahl, M., Heike, L., Hannes, R., Pohnert, G. (2016). Seasonal Variations in Surface Metabolite Composition of Fucus Vesiculosus and Fucus Serratus from the Baltic Sea. PLoS ONE, 11: e0168196
  50. Rodwell, V.W., Bender, D.A., Botham, K.M., Kennelly, P.J., Weil, P.A. (2015). Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry 30th Edition. New York (US): Mc Graw Hill
  51. Rohman, A., Riyanto, S., Yuniarti, N., Saputra, W.R., Utami, R., Mulatsih, W. (2010). Antioxidant activity, total phenolic anda total flavonoid of extract and fraction of red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam). Int. Food Res J., 97-106
  52. Runcie, J.W. and Riddle, M.J. (2012). Estimating primary productivity of marine macroalgae in East Antarctica using in situ fluorometry. Eur. J. Phycol., 47(4): 449-460
  53. Ruslan, F.S., Susanti, D., Noor, N.M., Aminudin, N.I., Taher, M. (2021). Bioactive Compounds, Cosmeceutical and Nutraceutical Applications of Green Seaweed Species (Chlorophyta). Squalen Bull. Mar. Fish. Postharvest Biotech., 16(1): 41-55
  54. Saleem, W.M., Galal, H., Nasr, E.F. (2011). Screening for antibacterial activities in some marine algae from The Red Sea (Hurghada, Egypt). African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5(15): 2160-2167
  55. Sambodo, D.K. (2019). Antioxidant activity of Sumbawa red seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) extract and lemon peel (Citrus limon L) extract combination. Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi , 15(2): 86-91
  56. Selawa, W., Runtuwene, M. R. J. and Citraningtyas, G. (2013). Kandungan Flavonoid dan Kapasitas Antioksidan Total Ekstrak Etanol Daun Binahong (Anredera cordifolia(Ten.)Steenis.) Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi-UNSRAT
  57. Setyobudiandi. (2009). Rumput Laut Indonesia Jenis dan Upaya Pemanfaatan. Unhalu Press
  58. Simatupang, D.F., Yanty, J. S., Rachmayanti, Y., Warganegara, F. M., Akhmaloka. (2018). Diversity of Tropical Marine Macroalgae from Coastal Area of Sayang Diversity of Tropical Marine Macroalgae from Coastal Area of Sayang Heulang, West Java Indonesia. Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia, 15(1): 139-144. DOI: 10.13005/bbra/2616
  59. Sivanandham, V. (2011). Free radicals in health and diseases - A mini review. Pharmacologyonline, 1: 1062-1077
  60. Sofiana, M.S.J., Aritonang, A.B., Safitri, I., Helena, S., Nurdiansyah, S.I., Risko, Fadly, D., Warsidah. (2020). Proximate, Phytochemicals, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Eucheuma spinosum Seaweed. Sys Rev Phar, 11(8): 228-232
  61. Sornsiri, J., Srisook, K., Pornngam, P., Sootanan, P. (2018). Prediction of biochemical mechanism of anti-inflammation explained from two marine-derived bioactive compounds. Agric. Nat. Res., 52: 588–595
  62. Sudhakar, K., Mamat, R., Samykano, M., Azmi, W.H., Ishak, W.F.W., Yusaf, T. (2018). An overview of marine macroalgae as bioresource. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 91: 165-179
  63. Sudirman, S., Hsu, Y-H., He, J-L., Kong, Z-L. (2018). Red Seaweed Eucheuma cottonii Ethanol Extract Regulates Inflammatory Mediators Production and Prevents Colonic Injury on Acute Colitis Disease in Mice. doi: 10.20944/preprints201806.0120.v1
  64. Sukmawati. (2021). Antibacterial Activities of Seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) Extract Against Escherichia coli Bacteria. BERKALA SAINSTEK, 9(1): 6-10
  65. Sunkara, A. and Raizner, A. (2019). Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment. Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc. J., 15: 179-184
  66. Suryaningrum, T.D., Wikanta, T., Kristiana, H. (2006). Uji aktivitas senyawa antioksidan dari rumput laut Halymenia harneyana dan Eucheuma cottonii. Jurnal Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan. 1(1): 51-64
  67. Tait, L.W. and Schiel, D.R. (2010). Primary productivity of intertidal macroalgal assemblages: comparison of laboratory and in situ photorespirometry. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 416: 115-125
  68. Warsidah, Fadly, D., Bohari. (2020). Antibacterial and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ethanol Extract Obtained from The Hooks of Uncaria tomentosa (Wild. Ex Schult) DC Originated Kalimantan, Indonesia. Syst. Rev. Pharm, 11: 65-70
  69. Widowati, R., Handayani, S., Suprihatin, Rahayu, I.L. (2021). Phytochemicals And Antioxidant of Methanol Extract of Gracilaria Salicornia, Halimeda Gracilis, Halimeda Macroloba, and Hypnea Asperi From Tidung Island Coastal Region. European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 08(01): 896-907
  70. Wulandari, D., Kilawati, Y., Fadjar, M. (2018). Activity of Compounds on Seaweed Eucheuma cottonii Extract as Antioxidant Candidate to Prevent Effects of Free Radical in Water Pollution. Research Journal of Life Science, 5(3), 173-182
  71. Yanuarti, R., Nurjanah, Anwar, E., Hidayat, T. (2017). Profil fenolik dan aktivitas antioksidan dari ekstrak rumput laut Turbinaria conoides dan Eucheuma cottonii. JPHPI, 20(2): 230-237
  72. Young, I. S., Woodside, J. V. (2001). Antioxidants in health and disease. J. Clin. Pathol., 54: 176-86
  73. Zhang, G., and Ghosh, S. (2000). Molecular mechanisms of NFkappaB activation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide through Toll-like receptors. Journal of Endotoxin Research, 6: 453-457

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2023-12-10 01:17:48

No citation recorded.