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Review: Aplikasi Material Komposit Berbasis Kitosan sebagai Bahan Kemasan Makanan

*Shalahudin Nur Ayyubi  -  Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Kusmiyati Kusmiyati  -  Departemen Teknik Industri, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, Indonesia
Aprilina Purbasari  -  Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Wahyu Zuli Pratiwi  -  Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
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Abstract

Perhatian terhadap biopolimer pada zaman sekarang semakin meningkat disebabkan oleh banyaknya bahan kemasan berbasis plastik yang tak dapat terurai secara alami. Kitosan dapat dijadikan sebagai alternatif pengganti polimer sintetik untuk material yang baru. Untuk melihat kesesuaian suatu material sebagai bahan pengemas makanan, perlu dilakukan kajian terhadap sifat mekanik dan permeabilitas. Sifat mekanik digunakan untuk memprediksi perilaku film selama pengangkutan, penanganan dan penyimpanan makanan kemasan. Sifat penghalang memainkan peran kunci dalam menjaga kualitas produk makanan. Sifat mekanik dan permeabilitas film kitosan murni cocok untuk kemasan makanan dan kemasan aktif. Sifat-sifat ini dapat dimodifikasi dengan menggabungkan kitosan dengan material lain seperti pemplastis, polisakarida, protein dan lipid. Kombinasi ini menyesuaikan sifat-sifat hasil polimer akhir untuk memperpanjang masa simpan makanan, sambil mempertahankan sifat kualitas makanan dan kemampuan terurai secara alami dari polimer tersebut. Kitosan juga menunjukkan aktivitas antimikroba yang baik terhadap berbagai macam jamur makanan, ragi, dan bakteri gram negatif dan gram positif. Sifat antimikroba ini telah menjadikan kitosan sebagai polimer untuk pengembangan kemasan aktif dengan kemampuan menghambat pertumbuhan mikroorganisme serta meningkatkan keamanan pangan.

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Keywords: plastik biodegradable; kitosan; biopolimer; material komposit; kemasan makanan aktif

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