Akumulasi dan Depurasi Toksin PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning) oleh Kerang Hijau (Accumulation and Depuration of PSP Toxin (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning) by Green Mussels)

*Haryoto Kusnoputranto -  Program Studi Ilmu Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Indonesia, Gedung C. Lantai 5-6. Jl Salemba Raya No. 4. Jakarta, Indonesia. 10430, Indonesia
Setyo S Moersidik -  Departemen Teknik Lingkungan Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Indonesia. Fakultas Teknik Kampus UI Depok, Indonesia. 16424, Indonesia
Djarot S Wisnubroto -  Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional, Kawasan Puspiptek Gedung 71. Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia 15310 Telp/Fax. +62217566681/7560927, Indonesia
Murdahayu Makmur -  dan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional, Kawasan Puspiptek Gedung 71. Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia 15310 Telp/Fax. +62217566681/7560927, Indonesia
Published: 3 Mar 2014.
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Section: Research Articles
Language: EN
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Statistics: 1937 2864
Abstract

Ledakan mikroalga sering dilaporkan terjadi di Teluk Jakarta, dimana di lokasi tersebut juga terdapat kegiatan budidaya kerang hijau (Perna viridis). Terkait dengan hal tersebut maka dilakukan studi akumulasi dan depurasi toksin PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning) pada kerang hijau. Studi akumulasi dilakukan di bagan kerang hijau perairan Cilincing Jakarta Utara, dengan memisahkan kerang hijau yang berukuran sama dan ditempatkan kembali ke bagan. Sampling dilakukan setiap minggu selama 2 bulan dan diukur juga kelimpahan fitoplankton, pH, suhu dan salinitas perairan. Depurasi dilakukan di Unit Depurasi Kekerangan KKP Panimbang Banten, yang dilakukan selama 24 jam. Pencuplikan  sampel dilakukan setiap jam pada 4 jam pertama dan setiap 2 dan 3 jam pada waktu berikutnya. Penentuan konsentrasi toksin PSP dilakukan dengan menggunakan HPLC detektor fluoresensi. Prosedur preparasi, ekstraksi dan pengukuran konsentrasi toksin mengikuti Manual AOAC Official Method 2005.06 untuk toksin PSP dalam kekerangan. Akumulasi toksin PSP oleh kerang hijau di perairan Cilincing pada bulan Januari–Pebruari 2011 berkisar antara 4,11–11,96 µg STX eq. per 100 g dan tidak mempunyai korelasi dengan kelimpahan Dinoflagelata di perairan. Hal ini disebabkan uji akumulasi tidak dilakukan pada saat blooming mikroalga. Uji depurasi selama 24 jam mengeliminasi toksin PSP sebesar 60%, sehingga bisa diajukan sebagai sistem pemutus rantai toksin dari mikroalga ke manusia.

Kata kunci: akumulasi, depurasi, PSP toksin, kerang hijau, Cilincing

Microalgae blooms have been frequently reported in the Jakarta Bay, which is also the location of green mussel (Perna viridis) aquaculture. Accumulation and depuration of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxin in the green mussels were investigated in the field, where the toxin accumulation studies conducted in the mussel farming at Cilincing, North Jakarta. Accumulation test carried out by placing back the selected green mussel (equal size) into the mussel farming. Every week for 2 months, the green mussel were collected from mussel farming and transported to the laboratory. The fitoplankton abundance also was checked including pH, Suhue and salinitiy paramaters. Toxin depuration was conducted at Clams Sanitation Unit at Panimbang Banten. The depuration studies were conducted for 24 hours with sampling every hour in the first 4 hours and every 3 and 2 hours until the 24th hour. Preparation, extraction and toxin concentration measurements performed by following the Manual AOAC Official Method 2005.06 for PSP toxin in oyster. This research concluded that the accumulation of PSP toxin by green mussel, Perna viridis in the mussel farming at Cilincing, North Jakarta in ranged between 4,11–11,96 µg STX eq. per 100 g during January–February 2011. No correlation between PSP toxin concentration in the green mussel, Perna viridis with abundance of the PSP toxin sources phytoplankton, because the study wasnt done when microalgae blooming. The depuration processes was eliminate 60% the PSP toxins for 24 hours depuration processing. It can be proposes as a banded system the PSP toxin from algae to human being.

Keywords: accumulation, depuration, PSP toxin, green mussel, Cilincing

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