skip to main content

Water/Heavy Fuel Oil Emulsion Production, Characterization and Combustion

Department of Applied Physics, Renewable Energy Laboratory, Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic

Received: 9 Dec 2020; Revised: 26 Feb 2021; Accepted: 16 Mar 2021; Published: 1 Aug 2021; Available online: 28 Mar 2021.
Editor(s): H Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:
In order to produce a water/heavy fuel oil emulsion (W/HFO) with different water contents to cover the daily needs of a fire tube boiler or a water tube boiler, a special homogenizer is designed, constructed and tested. The produced emulsion is characterized and compared with the pure HFO properties. It is found experimentally in fire tube boiler that, the use of W/HFO emulsion with 8% of water content (W0.08/HFO0.92) instead of HFO leads to a saving rate of 13.56% in HFO. For explaining the obtained energy saving the term “equivalent heat value (EHV) of the W/HFO emulsions”, defined as the ratio of the W/HFO emulsion net calorific value to the HFO content in the emulsion, is used. Based on direct measurements, provided in this work, it was found that the equivalent heat value (EHV) increases with the water content in the water/heavy fuel oil (W/HFO). It reaches 1.06 times of HFO net calorific value at water content of 22.24%. The obtained, in the present work, experimental results demonstrate the dependence of the emulsion EHV on its water content. These results are in agreement with the results of other authors. Therefore, the contribution of water droplets in the emulsion combustion is verified. It is found experimentally that, the emitted CO, SO2  and H2S gases from the fire tube boiler chimney decreases by 5.66%. 3.99% and 48.77% respectively in the case of (W0.08/HFO0.92) emulsion use instead of HFO.
Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Water-Heavy Fuel Oil Emulsion; Homogenizer; Structural Study; Vibrations; Equivalent Heating Value; Emulsion Combustion; Pollution Reduction

Article Metrics:

  1. ASTM D5854. Standard practice for mixing and handling of liquid of petroleum and petroleum products. West Conshohocke (PA): ASTM International; 2002. (Reapproved 2005)
  2. Califano, V., Calabria, R., & Massoli, P. (2014). Experimental evaluation of the effect of emulsion stability on micro-explosion phenomena for water-in-oil emulsions. Fuel, 117, 87–94. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.08.073
  3. Carneiro, G. F., Silva, R. C., Barbosa, L. L., Freitas, J. C. C., Sad, C. M. S., Tose, L. V., … Lacerda, V. (2015). Characterisation and selection of demulsifiers for water-in-crude oil emulsions using low-field 1H NMR and ESI–FT-ICR MS. Fuel, 140, 762–769. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2014.10.020
  4. Chappat , M. (1994). Some applications of emulsions. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 91, 57-77.
  5. Chelemuge, Namioka, T., Yoshikawa, K., Takeshita, M., Fujiwara, K. (2012). Commercial-scale demonstration of pollutant emission reduction and energy saving for industrial boilers by employing water/oil emulsified fuel. Applied Energy, 93, 517–522. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.12.018
  6. Chen, C.-C., Lee, W.-J. (2008). Using Oily Wastewater Emulsified Fuel in Boiler: Energy Saving and Reduction of Air Pollutant Emissions. Environmental Science & Technology, 42(1), 270–275. doi: 10.1021/es0717156
  7. Da Silva, M., Sad, Cr. M.S., Pereira, L. B., Corona, R. R.B., Bassane, J. F.P., Dos Santos, F. D., Neto, D. M.C., Silva, S. R.C., Castro, E. V.R., Filgueiras, P. R. (2018). Study of the stability and homogeneity of water in oil emulsions of heavy oil. Fuel, 226, 278-285.
  8. Debnath, B. K., Sahoo, N., & Saha, U. K. (2013). Adjusting the operating characteristics to improve the performance of an emulsified palm oil methyl ester run diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management, 69, 191–198. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2013.01.031
  9. Denton, A. R., & Ashcroft, N. W. (1991). Vegard’s law. Physical Review A, 43(6), 3161–3164. doi: 10.1103/physreva.43.3161
  10. Fu, W., Gong, J., & Hou, L. (2006). There is no micro-explosion in the diesel engines fueled with emulsified fuel. Chinese Science Bulletin, 51(10), 1261–1265. doi: 10.1007/s11434-006-1261-7
  11. Gavrilov, A. (1998). Vliyanie vlagi, v vodimoy v goryachiy vozduh, na soderzhanie okislov azota v produktah sgoraniya mazuta. Heat-and-power Engineering, 13–15. (tr.: The effect of moisture of input hot air on the content of nitrogen oxides in the output of fuel combustion)
  12. Grishkova, A (2004). Umen'shenie vybrosov oksidov azota ot vodogreinyh kotlov. Industrial Heat-and-Power Engineering, 32-33. (tr.: The reduction of output nitrogen oxides in boilers)
  13. Guido Dhondt (2004). The finite element method for three-dimensional thermomechanical applications. Wiley
  14. Hou, S.-S., Rizal, F. M., Lin, T.-H., Yang, T.-Y., & Wan, H.-P. (2013). Microexplosion and ignition of droplets of fuel oil/bio-oil (derived from lauan wood) blends. Fuel, 113, 31–42. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.05.066
  15. Jhalani, A., Sharma, D., Soni, Sh. L.. Sharma, P. K., Sharma, S. (2019). A comprehensive review on water-emulsified diesel fuel: chemistry, engine performance and exhaust emissions. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26 (5), 4570–4587. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-3958-y
  16. Li, Y.-Y., Hou, S.-S., Sheu, W.-J. (2014). Investigation on boiler efficiency and pollutant emissions of water/heavy oil emulsions using edge-tone resonant homogenizer. Fuel, 119, 240–251. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.11.029
  17. Lin, S.-L., Lee, W.-J., Chang, S.-S., Lee, C., Lee, L.-F., Lin, C.-S., Loong, H. (2011). Energy Savings and Emission Reduction of Traditional Pollutants, Particulate Matter, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Using Solvent-Containing Water Emulsified Heavy Fuel Oil in Boilers. Energy & Fuels, 25(4), 1537–1546. doi: 10.1021/ef200083g
  18. Melo-Espinosa, E. A., Bellettre, J., Tarlet, D., Montillet, A., Piloto-Rodríguez, R., Verhelst, S. (2018). Experimental investigation of emulsified fuels produced with a micro-channel emulsifier: Puffing and micro-explosion analyses. Fuel, 219, 320–330. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2018.01.103
  19. Mikula RJ. Emulsion characterization. In: Shramm LL, editor. Emulsions fundamentals and applications in the petroleum industry. Advances in Chemistry Series 231 American Chemical Society, Washington, DC: E-Publishing Inc; 1992. p. 79–129
  20. Mura, E., Calabria, R., Califano, V., Massoli, P., & Bellettre, J. (2014). Emulsion droplet micro-explosion: Analysis of two experimental approaches. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 56, 69–74. doi: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2013.11.020
  21. Mura, E., Massoli, P., Josset, C., Loubar, K., & Bellettre, J. (2012). Study of the micro-explosion temperature of water in oil emulsion droplets during the Leidenfrost effect. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 43, 63–70. doi: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2012.03.0
  22. Nowruzi, H., Ghadimi, P. (2016). Effect of water-in-heavy fuel oil emulsion on the non-reacting spray characteristics under different ambient conditions and injection pressures: A CFD study. Scientia Iranica B, 23(6), 2626-2640
  23. Nasir, A. (2013). Premix Emulsification Systems. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. ISBN: 978-94-6173-515-7
  24. Ocampo-Barrera, R, Villasenor, R, Diego-Marin, A. (2001). An experimental study of the effect of water content on combustion of heavy fuel oil/water emulsion droplets. Combustion and Flame, 126(4):1845–55. doi: 10.1016/s0010-2180(01)00295-4
  25. Ogunkoya, D., Li, S., Rojas, O. J., & Fang, T. (2015). Performance, combustion, and emissions in a diesel engine operated with fuel-in-water emulsions based on lignin. Applied Energy, 154, 851–861. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.05.03
  26. Sad, C. M. S., Santana, Í. L., Morigaki, M. K., Medeiros, E. F., Castro, E. V. R., Santos, M. F. P., & Filgueiras, P. R. (2015). New methodology for heavy oil desalination. Fuel, 150, 705–710. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2015.02.064
  27. Sad, M. H. (2014). Elasticity: Theory, Applications, and Numerics 3rd Edition. Academic Press
  28. Samec, N. (2002). Numerical and experimental study of water/oil emulsified fuel combustion in a diesel engine. Fuel, 81(16), 2035–2044. doi: 10.1016/s0016-2361(02)00135-7
  29. Schultz, S., Wagner, G., Urban, K., & Ulrich, J. (2004). High-Pressure Homogenization as a Process for Emulsion Formation. Chemical Engineering & Technology, 27(4), 361–368. doi: 10.1002/ceat.200406111
  30. Sjögren, A. (1977). Burning of water-in-oil emulsions. Symposium (International) on Combustion, 16(1), 297–305. doi: 10.1016/s0082-0784(77)80333-0
  31. Soulayman, S., Youssef, K. (2018). The Combustion of Emulsified Glycerol-Heavy Oil Fuel Droplet. Journal of Solar Energy Research Updates, 5,39-49. DOI:
  32. Spiecker, P. M., Gawrys, K. L, Kilpatrick P. K. (2003). Aggregation and solubility behavior of asphaltenes and their subfractions. J Colloid Interface Sci., 267(1), 178–93.
  33. Sullivan, A. P., Kilpatrick, P. K. (2002). The effects of inorganic solid particles on water and crude oil emulsion stability. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 41(14), 3389–404. DOI: 10.1021/ie010927n
  34. Tarlet, D., Josset, C., & Bellettre, J. (2016). Comparison between unique and coalesced water drops in micro-explosions scanned by differential calorimetry. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 95, 689–692.doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2015.12.054
  35. Tran, X., Ghojel, l. (2005). Impact of Introducing Water into the Combustion Chamber of Diesel Engines on Emissions – an Overview. 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Combustion. The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 233-236
  36. Tseng, Y. K., Cheng, H. C. (2011). Investigations on burning efficiency and exhaust emission of in-line type emulsified fuel system. IJEE, 2(4), 677-82
  37. Villasenor, R., & Garcia, F. (1999). An experimental study of the effects of asphaltenes on heavy fuel oil droplet combustion. Fuel, 78(8), 933–944. doi: 10.1016/s0016-2361(99)00010-1
  38. Watanabe, H., Suzuki, Y., Harada, T., Matsushita, Y., Aoki, H., & Miura, T. (2010). An experimental investigation of the breakup characteristics of secondary atomization of emulsified fuel droplet. Energy, 35(2), 806–813. doi: 10.1016/
  39. Yahaya-Khan, M., Abdul-Karim, Z. A., Aziz, A. R. A., Heikal, M. R., & Crua, C. (2016). Puffing and Microexplosion Behavior of Water in Pure Diesel Emulsion Droplets During Leidenfrost Effect. Combustion Science and Technology, 189(7), 1186–1197. doi: 10.1080/00102202.2016.1275593

Last update: 2021-07-23 08:48:11

  1. Effects of different water percentages in non-surfactant water-in-diesel emulsion fuel on the performance and exhaust emissions of a small-scale industrial burner

    Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 2021. doi: 10.1007/s10098-021-02151-7

Last update: 2021-07-23 08:48:11

No citation recorded.