skip to main content

The Effect of Wood Tar and Molasses Composition on Calorific Value and Compressive Strength in Bio-coke Briquetting

1Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Cilegon Banten 42435 , Indonesia

2Nanomaterials & Process Technology Laboratory, CoE Building 2 Floor 2, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Cilegon Banten 42435, Indonesia

3Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Cilegon Banten 42435, Indonesia

4 Research Center for Geotechnology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Jl. Sangkuriang, Kampus LIPI Bandung, Gd. 70, Bandung 40135, Indonesia

View all affiliations
Received: 19 Jun 2021; Revised: 25 Mar 2022; Accepted: 4 Apr 2022; Available online: 16 Apr 2022; Published: 4 Aug 2022.
Editor(s): H Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:

Biomass-based materials have the potential to replace conventional cokes for blast furnaces in the steel manufacturing study. Biomass as a renewable energy source can reduce the consumption of coking coal. The current challenge is saving fossil energy and waste management. The steelmaking industry with environmentally friendly processes and high energy efficiency is expected today. Many researchers have partially developed biomass as an alternative renewable resource to replace fossil fuels. This study aimed to determine the effect of composition the blending ratio of wood tar and molasses as a binder on the calorific value and compressive strength of bio-coke. The carbonization of redwood waste to produce high-quality charcoal was carried out at 500 °C with a kiln rotation speed of 20 rpm and a slope of 5°. The resulting charcoal showed a promising result with a 23.87 MJ/kg calorific value. The carbonization process of the redwood increased the fixed carbon value by up to 130% and the calorific value by 40%. The second part of this study focuses on bio-coke production by blending coking coal with redwood charcoal at 90:10 wt%. The coking coal and the redwood charcoal particle sizes were 40 and 50 mesh, respectively. A 15 wt% binder was added to increase the compressive strength of the bio-coke. The binder composition ratios of molasses: wood tar were 15:0, (12.5:2.5), and 10:5 wt%. The briquette was pressed using a cylinder die with a height: diameter ratio of 2.7:5.0 cm, then compacted up to 20 MPa followed by heating at 1100 °C for four hours. The bio-coke with a binder composition of 2.5 wt% wood tar + 12.5 wt% molasses produced a compressive strength of up to 5.57 MPa with a sulfur content of 0.8 wt% and produced a calorific value of 31.25 MJ/kg with an ash content of 9.6%. The study showed that the bio-coke produced meets some requirements for steelmaking industry.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: bio-coke; biomass; carbonization; charcoal; coking coal

Article Metrics:

  1. Amaya, A., Corengia, M., Cuña, A., Vivo, J. De, Sarachik, A. and Tancredi, N. (2015). Preparation of Charcoal Pellets from Eucalyptus Wood with Different Binders. Journal of Energy and natural Resourcesatural Resources, 4(2), 34–39. doi: 10.11648/j.jenr.20150402.12
  2. Bridgwater, A. V., Czernik, S. and Piskorz, J. (2008). An Overview of Fast Pyrolysis. Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion, (1), 977–997. doi: 10.1002/9780470694954.ch80
  3. Florentino-Madiedo, L., Díaz-Faes, E. and Barriocanal, C. (2020) .Mechanical strength of bio-coke from briquettes. Renewable Energy. 1717–1724. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2019.07.139
  4. Golovko, M. B. (2015). Chemical Composition and Melting Point of Ash in Western Donets Basin Coal. Coke and Chemistry, 58(8), 279–283. doi: 10.3103/S1068364X15080049
  5. Gupta, C. K. (2003) Chemical Metallurgy : Principles and Practice. Wiley-VCH , Weinheim
  6. Gupta, R. C. (2003). Woodchar as A Sustainable Reductant for Ironmaking in the 21st Century. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review: An International Journal, 24(3–4), 206–228. doi: 10.1080/714856822
  7. Huang, J., Liu, C., Tong, H., Li, W. and Wu, D. (2014). A density functional theory study on formation mechanism of CO , CO 2 and CH 4 in pyrolysis of lignin. ComputationalL and Theoritical Chemistry and Theoritical Chemistry. 1045, 1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.comptc.2014.06.009
  8. Kamal Baharin, N. S., Koesoemadinata, V. C., Nakamura, S., Yahya, W. J., Muhammad Yuzir, M. A., Md Akhir, F. N., Iwamoto, K., Othman, N., Ida, T. and Hara, H. (2020). Conversion and characterization of Bio-Coke from abundant biomass waste in Malaysia. Renewable Energy, 162, 1017–1025. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2020.08.083
  9. Lis, T., Korzec, N., Frohs, W., Tomala, J., Frączek-, A. and Błażewicz, S. (2016). Wood-derived tar as a carbon binder precursor for carbon and graphite technology. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 3813 1–8. doi: 10.1080/02773813.2016.1198380
  10. Liu, X., Feng, X., Huang, L. and He, Y. (2020). Rapid Determination of Wood and Rice Husk Pellets’ Proximate Analysis and Heating Value. Energies, 13(14), 1–12. doi: 10.3390/en13143741
  11. MacPhee, J. A., Gransden, J. F., Giroux, L. and Price, J. T. (2009). Possible CO2 mitigation via addition of charcoal to coking coal blends. Fuel Processing Technology, 90(1), 16–20. doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2008.07.007
  12. Mansor, A. M., Theo, W. L., Lim, J. S., Ani, F. N., Hashim, H. and Ho, W. S. (2018). Potential commercialisation of biocoke production in Malaysia—A best evidence review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 90 636–649. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2018.03.008
  13. McKendry, P. (2002). Energy production from biomass (part 1): Overview of biomass. Bioresource Technology, 83(1). 37–46. doi: 10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00118-3
  14. Mizuno, S., Ida, T., Fuchihata, M. and Namba, K. (2016). Effect of specimen size on ultimate compressive strength of Bio-coke produced from green tea grounds. Mechanical Engineering Journal, 3(1), 15-00441-15-00441. doi: 10.1299/mej.15-00441
  15. Montiano, M. G., Diaz-Faes, E., Barriocanal, C. and Alvarez, R. (2014). Influence of biomass on metallurgical coke quality. Fuel. 116, 175–182. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.07.070
  16. Montiano, M. G., Faes, E. D. and Barriocanal, C. (2016). Effect of briquette composition and size on the quality of the resulting coke. Fuel Processing Technology, 148, 155–162. doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2016.02.039
  17. Mousa, E., Wang, C., Riesbeck, J. and Larsson, M. (2016). Biomass applications in iron and steel industry: An overview of challenges and opportunities. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 65, 1247–1266. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.07.061
  18. Mursito, A. T., Muharman, A. and Yustanti, E. (2020). Producing bio-coke by redwood charcoal blending for blast furnace application. in Darsono, N., Thaha, Y. N., Ridhova, A., Rhamdani, A., Utomo, M. S., Ridlo, F. M., and Prasetyo, M. A. (eds) 3rd International Seminar on Metallurgy and Materials (ISMM2019). Tangerang Selatan-Indonesia: America Institute of Physics AIP, 060004-1. doi:
  19. Ninov, J. (2010). Hygroscopic Sorption Properties of Metakaolin. Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 45(1), 47–52
  20. Nomura, S. and Arima, T. (2017). Influence of binder (coal tar and pitch) addition on coal caking property and coke strength. Fuel Processing Technology, 159, 369–375. doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2017.01.024
  21. Norgate, T. and Langberg, D. (2009). Environmental and Economic Aspects of Charcoal Use in Steelmaking. ISIJ International, 49(4), 587–595
  22. Olofsson, J. (2017). Alkali Control in the Blast Furnace – Influence of Modified Ash Composition and Charging Practice. Luleå University of Technology
  23. Raju, C. A. I., Jyothi, K. R., Satya, M. and Praveena, U. (2014). Studies on Development of Fuel Briquettes for Household and Industrial Purpose. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 03(02), 54–63. doi: 10.15623/ijret.2014.0302011
  24. Rejdak, M., Robak, J., Czardybon, A., Ignasiak, K. and Fudała, P. (2020). Research on the Production of Composite Fuel on the Basis of Fine-Grained Coal Fractions and Biomass— The Impact of Process Parameters and the Type of Binder on the Quality of Briquettes Produced. Minerals, 10(1), 1–12. doi: 10.3390/min10010031
  25. Riazi, M. R. and Gupta, R. (2016). Coal Production and Processing Technology. 1st edn. Edited by M. . Riazi and R. Gupta. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group. doi:
  26. Wang, C., Wei, W., Mellin, P., Yang, W., Wang, C., Hultgren, A. and Salman, H. (2013) Utilization of biomass for blast furnace in Sweden. Swedish Energy Agency (STEM)
  27. Xing, X., Rogers, H., Zhang, G., Hockings, K., Zulli, P., Deev, A., Mathieson, J. and Ostrovski, O. (2017). Effect of charcoal addition on the properties of a coke subjected to simulated blast furnace conditions. Fuel Processing Technology, 157, 42–51. doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2016.11.009
  28. Xuehong, Z., Gaifeng, X., Hongming, F. and Luhan, Z. (2019). Moisture effect on coking course of coal. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 631(2). doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/631/2/022023
  29. Yustanti, E., Wardhono, E. Y., Mursito, A. T. and Alhamidi, A. (2021) ‘Types and composition of biomass in biocoke synthesis with the coal blending method’, Energies, 14(20), 1–18. doi: 10.3390/en14206570
  30. Zhong, Q., Yang, Y., Li, Q., Xu, B. and Jiang, T. (2017). Coal tar pitch and molasses blended binder for production of formed coal briquettes from high volatile coal. Fuel Processing Technology. 157, 12–19. doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2016.11.005

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.