skip to main content

A Green Heterogeneous Catalyst Production and Characterization for Biodiesel Production using RSM and ANN Approach

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Raghu Engineering College, Visakhapatnam,531162, India

2Department of Automotive Engineering, Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang, Magelang,56172, Indonesia

3Center of Energy for Society and Industry (CESI), Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang, Magelang,56172, Indonesia

Received: 26 Dec 2021; Revised: 10 Apr 2022; Accepted: 16 Apr 2022; Available online: 27 Apr 2022; Published: 4 Aug 2022.
Editor(s): H. Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:
In this work, naturally available moringa oleifera leaves (also known as horseradish trees or drumstick trees) are chosen as a heterogeneous catalyst in the transesterification for biodiesel production from palm oil. The dry moringa oleifera leaves are calcinated at 700 °C for 3 hours to improve their adsorbing property. The calcinated catalyst characterization analysis from XRD and EDX highlights the presence of calcium, potassium, and other elements. Response surface method (RSM) optimization and artificial neural network (ANN) modeling were carried out to elucidate the interaction effect of significant process variables on biodiesel yield. The results show that a maximum biodiesel yield of 92.82% was achieved at optimum conditions of catalyst usage (9 wt.%), molar ratio, methanol to triglyceride (7:1), temperature (50 °C) and reaction time (120 min). The catalyst usage (wt.%) was identified as a significant process variable, followed by the molar ratio. Furthermore, the biodiesel’s significant fuel properties in terms of thermal, physical, chemical, and elemental match the established standards of ASTM. Finally, when the catalyst was reused for five cycles, more than 50% of the biodiesel yield was achieved.
Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Moringa oleifera leaves; Calcination; Biodiesel; Optimization and Modeling

Article Metrics:

  1. Adetunji, O. R., Ogbuokiri, M. C., Dairo, O. U., Olatunde, O. B., & Okediran, I. K. (2021). The Effect of Excess Heat Utilization on the Production Cost of Cement. Mechanical Engineering for Society and Industry, 1(2), 104-114.
  2. Aleman-Ramirez, J. L., Moreira, J., Torres-Arellano, S., Longoria, A., Okoye, P. U., & Sebastian, P. J. (2021). Preparation of a heterogeneous catalyst from moringa leaves as a sustainable precursor for biodiesel production. Fuel, 284, 118983.
  3. Basha, S. A., Gopal, K. R., & Jebaraj, S. (2009). A review on biodiesel production, combustion, emissions and performance. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(6-7), 1628-1634.
  4. Changmai, B., Vanlalveni, C., Ingle, A. P., Bhagat, R., & Rokhum, L. (2020). Widely used catalysts in biodiesel production: a review. RSC Advances, 10(68), 41625-41679.
  5. Dai, Y.-M., Chen, K.-T., Wang, Y.-J., & Chen, C.-C. (2014). Application of peanut husk ash as a low-cost solid catalyst for biodiesel production. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications, 5(3), 276.
  6. Demir, V. G., Yuksel, H., Koten, H., Gul, M. Z., & Soyhan, H. S. (2019). Microwave-assisted pilot-scale biodiesel production and engine tests. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy, 172(1), 1-11.
  7. Elehinafe, F. B., Okedere, O. B., Ebong-Bassey, Q. E., & Sonibare, J. A. (2021). Data on Emission Factors of Gaseous Emissions from Combustion of Woody Biomasses as Potential Fuels for Firing Thermal Power Plants in Nigeria. Mechanical Engineering for Society and Industry, 1(2), 75-82.
  8. Fan, M., Wu, H., Shi, M., Zhang, P., & Jiang, P. (2019). Well-dispersive K2OKCl alkaline catalyst derived from waste banana peel for biodiesel synthesis. Green Energy & Environment, 4(3), 322-327.
  9. Gopalakrishnan, L., Doriya, K., & Kumar, D. S. (2016). Moringa oleifera: A review on nutritive importance and its medicinal application. Food Science and Human Wellness, 5(2), 49-56.
  10. Hadiyanto, H., Lestari, S.P., Widayat, W.(2016). Preparation and characterization of Anadara Granosa shells and CaCo3 as heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11(1), 21-26.
  11. Hariyanto, R. A. B., Firmansyah, R. A., Burhan, R. Y. P., & Zetra, Y. (2021). Synthesis of Bio-additive for Low Sulphur Diesel: Transesterification of Soybean Oil and Ethylene Glycol using K2CO3 Catalyst. Automotive Experiences, 4(1), 44-50.
  12. Islam, M. A., Brown, R. J., Brooks, P. R., Jahirul, M. I., Bockhorn, H., & Heimann, K. (2015). Investigation of the effects of the fatty acid profile on fuel properties using a multi-criteria decision analysis. Energy Conversion and Management, 98, 340-347.
  13. Jiang, W., Lu, H., Qi, T., Yan, S., & Liang, B. (2010). Preparation, application, and optimization of Zn/Al complex oxides for biodiesel production under sub-critical conditions. Biotechnology Advances, 28(5), 620-627.
  14. Karmakar, A., Karmakar, S., & Mukherjee, S. (2010). Properties of various plants and animals feedstocks for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology, 101(19), 7201-7210.
  15. Kivevele, T., Raja, T., Pirouzfar, V., Waluyo, B., & Setiyo, M. (2020). LPG-Fueled Vehicles: An Overview of Technology and Market Trend. Automotive Experiences, 3(1), 6-19.
  16. Kolakoti, A. (2020). Optimization of biodiesel production from waste cooking sunflower oil by Taguchi and ANN techniques. Journal of Thermal Engineering, 6(5), 712-723.
  17. Kolakoti, A., Prasadarao, B., Satyanarayana, K., Setiyo, M., Köten, H., & Raghu, M. (2022). Elemental, Thermal and Physicochemical Investigation of Novel Biodiesel from Wodyetia Bifurcata and Its Properties Optimization using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Automotive Experiences, 5(1), 3-15
  18. Kolakoti, A., & Rao, B. V. A. (2019). Effect of fatty acid composition on the performance and emission characteristics of an IDI supercharged engine using neat palm biodiesel and coconut biodiesel as an additive. Biofuels, 10(5), 591-605.
  19. Kolakoti, A., & Rao, B. V. A. (2020a). Relative Testing of Neat Jatropha Methyl Ester by Preheating to Viscosity Saturation in IDI Engine-An Optimisation Approach. International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, 17(2), 8052-8066.
  20. Kolakoti, A., & Rao, B. V. A. (2020b). Performance and emission analysis of a naturally aspirated and supercharged IDI diesel engine using palm methyl ester. Biofuels, 11(4), 479-490.
  21. Kolakoti, A., & Satish, G. (2020). Biodiesel production from low-grade oil using heterogeneous catalyst: an optimisation and ANN modelling. Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 1-13.
  22. Kolakoti, A., Setiyo, M., & Waluyo, B. (2021). Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil: Characterization, Modeling and Optimization. Mechanical Engineering for Society and Industry, 1(1), 22-30.
  23. Lee, A. F., Bennett, J. A., Manayil, J. C., & Wilson, K. (2014). Heterogeneous catalysis for sustainable biodiesel production via esterification and transesterification. Chemical Society Reviews, 43(22), 7887-7916.
  24. Munahar, S., Purnomo, B. C., & Köten, H. (2021). Fuel Control Systems for Planetary Transmission Vehicles: A Contribution to the LPG-fueled Vehicles Community. Mechanical Engineering for Society and Industry, 1(1), 14-21.
  25. Muthusamy, B., & Subramaniapillai, N. (2020). Banana peduncle-a green and renewable heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production from Ceiba pentandra oil. Renewable Energy, 146, 2255-2269.
  26. Nasreen, S., Liu, H., Skala, D., Waseem, A., & Wan, L. (2015). Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil using La/Mn oxide catalyst. Fuel Processing Technology, 131, 290-296.
  27. Onoji, S. E., Iyuke, S. E., Igbafe, A. I., & Daramola, M. O. (2017). Transesterification of rubber seed oil to biodiesel over a calcined waste rubber seed shell catalyst: Modeling and optimization of process variables. Energy & Fuels, 31(6), 6109-6119.
  28. Rashid, U., Soltani, S., Al-Resayes, S. I., & Nehdi, I. A. (2018). Metal oxide catalysts for biodiesel production. In Metal Oxides in Energy Technologies (pp. 303-319). Elsevier.
  29. Satya, S., Kolakoti, A., & Rao, R. (2019). Optimization of palm methyl ester and its effect on fatty acid compositions and cetane number. Mathematical Models in Engineering, 5(1), 25-34.
  30. Setiyo, M. (2022). Alternative fuels for transportation sector in Indonesia. Mechanical Engineering for Society and Industry, 2(1), 1-6.
  31. Sewsynker-Sukai, Y., Faloye, F., & Kana, E. B. G. (2017). Artificial neural networks: an efficient tool for modelling and optimization of biofuel production (a mini review). Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 31(2), 221-235.
  32. Sharma, M., Khan, A. A., Puri, S. K., & Tuli, D. K. (2012). Wood ash as a potential heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel synthesis. Biomass and Bioenergy, 41, 94-106.
  33. Sinha, S., Agarwal, A. K., & Garg, S. (2008). Biodiesel development from rice bran oil: Transesterification process optimization and fuel characterization. Energy Conversion and Management, 49(5), 1248-1257.
  34. Souza, S. P., Seabra, J. E. A., & Nogueira, L. A. H. (2018). Feedstocks for biodiesel production: Brazilian and global perspectives. Biofuels, 9(4), 455-478.
  35. Sunaryo, S., Sesotyo, P. A., Saputra, E., & Sasmito, A. P. (2021). Performance and Fuel Consumption of Diesel Engine Fueled by Diesel Fuel and Waste Plastic Oil Blends: An Experimental Investigation. Automotive Experiences, 4(1), 20-26.
  36. Supriyadi, S., Purwanto, P., Anggoro, D. D., & Hermawan, H. (2022). The Effects of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Concentration and Reaction Temperature on The Properties of Biodiesel from Philippine Tung (Reutealis Trisperma) Seeds. Automotive Experiences, 5(1), 57-67
  37. Supriyanto, Ismanto, & Suwito, N. (2019). Zeolit Alam Sebagai Katalis Pyrolisis Limbah Ban Bekas Menjadi Bahan Bakar Cair [Natural Zeolite as Pyrolisis Catalyst of Used Tires into Liquid Fuels]. Automotive Experiences, 2(1), 15-21.
  38. Susanto, R. M., & Setiyo, M. (2018). Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) : Status Teknologi dan Peluang Status Teknologi dan Peluang Pengembangannya. Automotive Experiences, 1(01), 1-6.
  39. Syarifudin, S., Sanjaya, F. L., Fatkhurrozak, F., Usman, M. K., Sibagariang, Y., & Köten, H. (2020). Effect Methanol, Ethanol, Butanol on the Emissions Characteristics of Gasoline Engine. Automotive Experiences, 4(2), 62-67.
  40. Wahyu, M., Rahmad, H., & Gotama, G. J. (2019). Effect of Cassava Biogasoline on Fuel Consumption and CO Exhaust Emissions. Automotive Experiences, 2(3), 97-103.
  41. Wei, Z., Xu, C., & Li, B. (2009). Application of waste eggshell as low-cost solid catalyst for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology, 100(11), 2883-2885.
  42. Wen, L., Wang, Y., Lu, D., Hu, S., & Han, H. (2010). Preparation of KF/CaO nanocatalyst and its application in biodiesel production from Chinese tallow seed oil. Fuel, 89(9), 2267-2271.
  43. Zetra, Y., Sholihah, S. M. W., Burhan, R. Y. P., & Firmansyah, R. A. (2021). Synthesis and Characterization of Diesel Lubricity Enhancer through Transesterification Reaction of Palm Oil with 1, 2-Ethanediol. Automotive Experiences, 4(2), 104-111.

Last update:

  1. High performance of a base catalyst from Moringa leaves ash for biodiesel conversion of low-grade Bali Malapari oil

    Triyono, Wega Trisunaryanti, Serisya Inier Aksanti, Jason Purbonegoro. Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis, 2024. doi: 10.1007/s11144-024-02637-7
  2. Understanding Fuel Saving and Clean Fuel Strategies Towards Green Maritime

    Van Nhanh Nguyen, Krzysztof Rudzki, Marek Dzida, Nguyen Dang Khoa Pham, Minh Tuan Pham, Phuoc Quy Phong Nguyen, Phuong Nguyen Xuan. Polish Maritime Research, 30 (2), 2023. doi: 10.2478/pomr-2023-0030
  3. Process Optimization of Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil in a Microwave Reactor: A Case of Machine Learning and Box–Behnken Design

    Achanai Buasri, Phensuda Sirikoom, Sirinan Pattane, Orapharn Buachum, Vorrada Loryuenyong. ChemEngineering, 7 (4), 2023. doi: 10.3390/chemengineering7040065
  4. Synthesis of Biobased Composite Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production Using Simplex Lattice Design Mixture: Optimization Process by Taguchi Method

    Christopher Tunji Oloyede, Simeon Olatayo Jekayinfa, Abass Olanrewaju Alade, Oyetola Ogunkunle, Opeyeolu Timothy Laseinde, Ademola Oyejide Adebayo, Adeola Ibrahim Abdulkareem, Ghassan Fadhil Smaisim, I.M.R. Fattah. Energies, 16 (5), 2023. doi: 10.3390/en16052197
  5. Investigations on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a dual-fuel diesel engine fueled with induced bamboo leaf gaseous fuel and injected mixed biodiesel-diesel blends

    Van Nhanh Nguyen, Biswajeet Nayak, Thingujam Jackson Singh, Swarup Kumar Nayak, Dao Nam Cao, Huu Cuong Le, Xuan Phuong Nguyen. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 54 , 2024. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2023.06.074
  6. Optimization of biodiesel production from Nahar oil using Box-Behnken design, ANOVA and grey wolf optimizer

    Van Nhanh Nguyen, Prabhakar Sharma, Anurag Kumar, Minh Tuan Pham, Huu Cuong Le, Thanh Hai Truong, Dao Nam Cao. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 12 (4), 2023. doi: 10.14710/ijred.2023.54941
  7. Reusable Catalyst of KF/Mg-Al Layered Double for Biodiesel Conversion and Optimization using Bohn-Behnken Design

    Totok Eka Suharto, Fethi Kooli, Sheikh Ahmad Izaddin Sheikh Mohd Ghazali, Is Fatimah. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 17 (3), 2022. doi: 10.9767/bcrec.17.3.14485.497-507
  8. Optimization of biodiesel production, engine exhaust emissions, and vibration diagnosis using a combined approach of definitive screening design (DSD) and artificial neural network (ANN)

    Aditya Kolakoti, Mina Tadros, Vijay Kumar Ambati, Venkata Naga Sai Gudlavalleti. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30 (37), 2023. doi: 10.1007/s11356-023-28619-1
  9. Controllable preparation of biomass derived mesoporous activated carbon supported nano-CaO catalysts for biodiesel production

    Hao Sun, Mingzhe Ma, Mengmeng Fan, Kang Sun, Wei Xu, Kui Wang, Baojun Li, Jianchun Jiang. Energy, 261 , 2022. doi: 10.1016/
  10. Synthesis, catalysts and enhancement technologies of biodiesel from oil feedstock – A review

    Lu Wang, Hanyue Wang, Jianhua Fan, Zhiwu Han. Science of The Total Environment, 904 , 2023. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.166982
  11. Exploration of agricultural residue ash as a solid green heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production

    Christopher Tunji Oloyede, Simeon Olatayo Jekayinfa, Abass Olanrewaju Alade, Oyetola Ogunkunle, Nsikak‐Abasi Ubohon Otung, Opeyeolu Timothy Laseinde. Engineering Reports, 5 (1), 2023. doi: 10.1002/eng2.12585
  12. Response surface methodology (RSM) for optimizing engine performance and emissions fueled with biofuel: Review of RSM for sustainability energy transition

    Ibham Veza, Martin Spraggon, I.M. Rizwanul Fattah, Muhammad Idris. Results in Engineering, 18 , 2023. doi: 10.1016/j.rineng.2023.101213
  13. Biodiesel Production from a Naturally Grown Green Algae Spirogyra Using Heterogeneous Catalyst: An Approach to RSM Optimization Technique

    Teku Kalyani, Lankapalli Sathya Vara Prasad, Aditya Kolakoti. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 12 (2), 2023. doi: 10.14710/ijred.2023.50065
  14. Biodiesel production from waste cat fish oil using heterogeneous catalyst from cat fish born: A viable waste management approach, and ANN modeling of biodiesel yield

    Chinedu M. Agu, Kingsley A. Ani, Prince O. Abiazieije, Juliet A. Omeje, Jane C. Ekuma, Uchenna E. Umelo, Osondu H. Omukwu, Emeka D. Nwankwo, Mmesoma P. Chinedu. Waste Management Bulletin, 1 (4), 2024. doi: 10.1016/j.wmb.2023.11.002
  15. Production of biodiesel (isopropyl ester) from coconut oil by microwave assisted transesterification: parametric study and optimization

    Rheinanda Rachmaditasari, Muhamad Irfaid Darojat, Mahfud Mahfud. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 13 (4), 2024. doi: 10.61435/ijred.2024.60174
  16. Response Surface Methodology in Biodiesel Production and Engine Performance Assessment

    Sara Maen Asaad, Abrar Inayat, Chaouki Ghenai, Abdallah Shanableh. International Journal of Thermofluids, 21 , 2024. doi: 10.1016/j.ijft.2023.100551
  17. Biodiesel unsaturation and the synergic effects of hydrogen sharing rate on the characteristics of a compression ignition engine in dual-fuel mode

    C. Prabhu, B. Navaneetha Krishnan, T. Prakash, V. Rajasekar, Dhinesh Balasubramanian, Van Vang Le, Nguyen Viet Linh Le, Phuoc Quy Phong Nguyen, Van Nhanh Nguyen. Fuel, 334 , 2023. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2022.126699
  18. Application of efficient soft computing approaches for modeling methyl ester yield from Azadirachta Indica (Neem) seed oil: A comparative study of RSM, ANN and ANFIS

    Chinedu Matthew Agu, Kingsely Amechi Ani, Onuabuchi Nnenna Ani, Patrick Chukwudi Nnaji, Chukwuma H. Kadurumba, Chizoo Esonye. Green Technologies and Sustainability, 2 (1), 2024. doi: 10.1016/j.grets.2023.100057

Last update: 2024-05-23 19:50:59

No citation recorded.