skip to main content

Tin (II) Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia

2Chemical Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, Semarang State University, Indonesia

Published: 15 Jul 2014.

Citation Format:

Biodiesel is one of the promising energy source alternatives to fossil fuel. To produce biodiesel in a more economical way, the employment of the low-cost feed stocks, such as non-edible oils with high free fatty acid (FFA), is necessary. Accordingly, the esterification reaction of FFA in vegetable oils plays an important role in the biodiesel production. In this work, esterification of FFA contained in Crude Jatropha Oil (CJO) in the presence of tin (II) chloride catalyst in a batch reactor has been carried out. The esterification reaction was conducted using methanol at the temperature of 40-60 °C for 4 hours. The effect of molar ratio of methanol to oil was studied in the range 15:1 to 120:1. The influence of catalyst loading was investigated in the range of 2.5 to 15% w/w oil. The optimum reaction conversion was obtained at 60 °C with the catalyst loading of 10% w/w oil and molar ratio of methanol to oil of 120:1. A pseudo-homogeneous reversible second order kinetic model for describing the esterification of FFA contained in CJO with methanol over tin (II) chloride catalyst was developed based on the experimental data. The kinetic model can fit the data very well.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Esterification; free fatty acid; tin (II) chloride; biodiesel; kinetics

Article Metrics:

  1. Ali, S. H., Tarakmah, A., Merchant, S.Q., and Al-Sahhaf, T. (2007) Synthesis of Esters: Development of the Rate Expression or the Dowex 50 Wx8-400 Catalyzed Esterification of Propionic Acid with 1-Propanol. Chem. Eng. Sci., 62, 3197 – 3217
  2. Alenezi, R., Leeke, G.A., Winterbottom, J.M., Santos, R.C.D., and Khan, A.R. (2010) Esterification Kinetics of Free Fatty Acids with Supercritical Methanol for Biodiesel Production. Energy Conversion and Management, 51, 1055–1059
  3. Aranda, D. A. G., Santos, R. T. P., Tapanes, N. C. O., Ramos, A. L. D., and Antunes, O. A. C. (2008) Acid-Catalyzed Homogeneous Esterification Reaction for Biodiesel Production from Palm Fatty Acids. Catal. Lett., 122, 20–25
  4. Aranda, D. A. G., Goncalves, J. A., Peres, J. S., Ramos, A. L. D., de Melo, Jr. C. A. R., Antunes, O. A .C., Furtado, N. C., and Taft, C. A. (2009) The Use of Acids, Niobium Oxide, and Zeolite Catalysts for Esterification Reactions. J. Phys. Org. Chem., 22, 709–716
  5. Atadashi, I. M., Aroua, M. K., and Abdul Aziz, A. (2011) Biodiesel Separation and Purification: A Review. Renew. Energy, 36(2), 437-443
  6. Budiman, A., Kusumaningtyas, R. D., Sutijan, Rochmadi, Purwono, S. (2009) Second Generation of Biodiesel Production from Indonesian Jatropha Oil by Continuous Reactive Distillation Process. Asean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 9(2), 35 – 48
  7. Da Silva, M. J., Goncalves, C. E., and Laier, L. O. (2011) Novel Esterification of Glycerol Catalysed by Tin Chloride (II): A Recyclable and Less Corrosive Process For Production Of Bioadditives. Catalysis Letters, 141(8), 1111–1117
  8. Dermibas, A. (2005) Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils via Catalytic and Non-Catalytic Supercritical Methanol Transesterification Methods. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 31, 466–487
  9. Deshmane, V. G., and Adewuyi, Y. G. (2013) Synthesis and Kinetics of Biodiesel Formation via Calcium Methoxide Base Catalyzed Transesterification Reaction in the Absence and Presence of Ultrasound. Fuel, 107, 474-482
  10. Ferreira, A. B., Cardoso, A. L., and da Silva, M. C. (2012) Tin-Catalyzed Esterification and Transesterification Reactions: A Review. ISRN Renewable Energy, 2012(142857), 1-13
  11. Freedman, B., Pryde, E. H. and Mounts. T. L. (1984) Variables Affecting the Yields of Fatty Esters from Transesterified Vegetable Oils.. JAOCS, 61(10), 1638-1643
  12. Gan, S., Ng H. K, Ooi C. W., Motala, N. O., Ismail, M. A. F. (2010) Ferric Sulphate Catalysed Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Waste Cooking Oil. Bioresource Technology, 101, 7338–7343
  13. Kusumaningtyas, R.D., Masduki, Hidayat, A., Rochmadi, Purwono, S., and Budiman, A. (2013) A Kinetics Study of Fatty Acid Esterification over Sulfated Zeolite-Zirconium Catalyst for Biodiesel Production. International Seminar on Chemical Engineering, Bio Energy, Chemical and Materials (BioEnChe), October 2013, Bandung, Indonesia
  14. Lou, W.Y., Zong, M.H., and Duan, Z.Q. (2008) Efficient Production of Biodiesel From High Free Fatty Acid-Containing Waste Oils Using Various Carbohydrate-Derived Solid Acid Catalysts. Bioresource Technology, 99, 8752–8758
  15. Rattanaphra, D., Harvey, A.P., Thanapimmetha, A., and Srinophakun, P. (2011) Kinetic of Myristic Acid Esterification with Metanol in the Presence of Triglycerides over Sulfated Zirconia. Renewable Energy, 36, 2679-2686
  16. Russbueldt, B. M. E. and Hoelderich, W. F. (2009) New Sulfonic Acid Ion-Exchange Resins for the Preesterification of Different Oils and Fats with High Content of Free Fatty Acids. Applied Catalysis A: General, 362, 47–57
  17. Shibasaki-Kitakawa, N., Honda, H., Kuribayashi, H., Toda, T., Fukumura, T., and Yonemoto, T. (2007) Biodiesel Production Using Anionic Ion-Exchange Resin as Heterogeneous Catalyst. Bioresource Technology, 98, 416–421
  18. Song, C., Qi, Y., Deng, T., Hou, X., and Qin, Z. (2010) Kinetic Model for the Esterification of Oleic Acid Catalyzed by Zinc Acetate in Subcritical Methanol. Renewable Energy , 35, 625–628
  19. Srilatha, K., Lingaiah, N., Devi, B. L. A. P., Prasad, R. B. N., Venkateswar, S., and Prasad, P. S. S. (2009) Esterification of Free Fatty Acids for Biodiesel Production over Heteropoly Tungstate Supported on Niobia Catalysts. Applied Catalysis A: General, 365(1), 28-33
  20. Yadav, G. D., Yadav, A. R. (2012) Insight into Esterification of Eugenol to Eugenol Benzoate Using A Solid Super Acidic Modified Zirconia Catalyst UDCaT-5. Chemical Engineering Journal, 192, 146–155

Last update:

  1. Synthesis of biodiesel from kapok (Ceiba pentandra L.) seed oil through ultrasound-enhanced transesterification reaction

    Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Muhammad Yasir Adhi Utomo, Pipit Risky Nurjanah, Dwi Widjanarko. THE 5TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL, MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 2019 (ICIMECE 2019), 2217 , 2020. doi: 10.1063/5.0000609
  2. Optimisation of Free Fatty Acid Removal in Nyamplung Seed Oil (Callophyllum inophylum L.) using Response Surface Methodology Analysis

    Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Haniif Prasetiawan, Radenrara Dewi Artanti Putri, Bayu Triwibowo, Siti Choirunisa Furi Kurnita, Nanda Dwi Anggraeni, Harumi Veny, Fazlena Hamzah, Miradatul Najwa Muhd Rodhi. Pertanika Journal of Science and Technology, 29 (4), 2021. doi: 10.47836/pjst.29.4.20
  3. Biofuels and Bioenergy

    Kailas L. Wasewar. 2022. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-323-90040-9.00035-7
  4. Experimental and kinetic study of free fatty acid esterification derived from Ceiba pentandra seed oil with ethanol

    R D Kusumaningtyas, Haifah, D Widjanarko, H Prasetiawan, Y W P Budiono, A D H Kusuma, N D Anggraeni, S C F Kurnita. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1918 (3), 2021. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1918/3/032022

Last update: 2024-06-15 00:17:11

  1. Application of tin(II) chloride catalyst for high FFA jatropha oil esterification in continuous reactive distillation column

    Kusumaningtyas R.D.. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1), 2016. doi: 10.9767/bcrec.11.1.417.66-74
  2. Synthesis of biodiesel from kapok (Ceiba pentandra L.) seed oil through ultrasound-enhanced transesterification reaction

    Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Muhammad Yasir Adhi Utomo, Pipit Risky Nurjanah, Dwi Widjanarko. THE 5TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL, MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 2019 (ICIMECE 2019), 2217 , 2020. doi: 10.1063/5.0000609
  3. Esterification of non-edible oil mixture in reactive distillation column over solid acid catalyst: Experimental and simulation study

    Kusumaningtyas R.. Journal of Physical Science, 29 , 2018. doi: 10.21315/jps2018.29.s2.17
  4. A new route of biodiesel production through chemical interesterification of jatropha oil using ethyl acetate

    Kusumaningtyas R.. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 9 (6), 2016.