Metana: Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca dari Ekosistem Karbon Biru, Mangrove

*Yaya Ihya Ulumuddin orcid  -  Pusat Penelitian Oseanografi-LIPI, Indonesia
Received: 18 Jun 2019; Published: 9 Sep 2019.
Open Access
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Abstract

Kontribusi mangrove terhadap emisi metana global merupakan topik yang sedang diperdebatkan. Ini adalah kajian pustaka dari 154 makalah--yang diakses dari arsip daring, Web of Science– yang mendiskusikan tentang metana di ekosistem mangrove yang dikaji dari berbagai aspek. Namun demikian, hanya 35 makalah yang secara langsung melaporkan tentang volume emisi metana dari ekosistem mangrove. Selebihnya mengkaji tentang metana yang terlarut di dalam air poros (pore-water), mikrobioma dan organisme pembentuk metana, pemindahan gas metana melalui pasang surut, dan geokimia. Kajian emisis gas metana dari sedimen mangrove menunjukkan bahwa secara umum emisinya rendah. Namun, penilaian mendalam terhadap aspek-aspek kajian lainnya serta dikombinaiskan dengan informasi dari kajian-kajian di ekosistem lahan basah air tawar menunjukkan bahwa ekosistem mangrove mungkina menghasilkan emisi gas metana yang tinggi. Kondisi tertentu yang dapat menyebabkan tingginya emisi ini yaitu ketika ada polusi nutrisi di ekosistem mangrove. Hal ini menghasilkan kondisi lingkungan yang cocok bagi metanogen, yaitu kombinasi antara materi organik yang melimpah dan kondisi anerobik. Kemungkinan yang lain adalah ada jalur-jalur lain dalam pelepasan gas metana ke atmosfer. Hal ini disimpulkan dari aksioma bahwa emisi gas metana sedimen mangrove secara alami rendah tapi potensi produksi gas metana tinggi. Mengacu pada aksioma-aksioma ini, maka beberapa pertanyaan penelitian diajukan di sini untuk dijawab pada penelitian-penelitian di masa yang akan datang. Pertanyaan-pertanyaan penelitian ini diajukan untuk mendorong penelitian terkait gas metana di hutan mangrove Indonesia.

Keywords: Metana, Metanogenesis, Mangrove, Emisi, Produksi
Funding: Australian Awards Scholarship

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