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Komposisi Kimia Pencemar Partikulat Kasar dan Halus di DKI Jakarta Pada Musim Hujan dan Musim Kemarau

1Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

2Pusat Sains dan Teknologi Nuklir Terapan (PSTNT), Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional, Indonesia

Received: 26 Sep 2020; Published: 30 Nov 2020.
Editor(s): Sudarno Utomo

Citation Format:
Abstract

Partikulat yang memberikan dampak negatif terhadap lingkungan dan kesehatan manusia dikategorikan berdasarkan ukurannya yaitu PM10 berukuran <10 μm dan PM2.5 berukuran <2,5 μm.  Dampak terhadap kesehatan akan semakin besar pada ukuran partikulat yang semakin kecil, serta tergantung pada komposisi kimia yang dikandungnya. Penelitian ini difokuskan untuk mengetahui perbedaan komposisi kimia partikulat halus (PM2.5) dan partikulat kasar (PM10-2,5) pada musim hujan dan musim kemarau, serta sumber-sumber pengemisinya. Sampling dilakukan di DKI Jakarta menggunakan alat Gent stacked filter sampler unit pada musim hujan. Hasil pengukuran total massa partikulat dan komposisinya dibandingkan dengan pengukuran pada studi sebelumnya yang dilakukan pada musim kemarau. Massa partikulat ditentukan menggunakan alat neraca semi Mikro Mettler Toledo. Untuk mengetahui unsur-unsur yang terkandung di dalam filter kasar maupun halus digunakan Epsilon 5 EDXRF spectrometer. Analisis korelasi pada komposisi kimia digunakan untuk memprediksi sumber-sumber pengemisi. Hasil perhitungan konsentrasi rata-rata PM2,5 dan PM10-2,5 lebih rendah pada musim hujan dibandingkan dengan pada musim kemarau. Konsentrasi rata-rata partikulat halus di musim hujan adalah sebesar 15,31±0,41 µg/m3 dan partikulat kasar sebesar 28,69±0,56 µg/m3 sedangkan di musim kemarau sebesar 26,76±0,22 µg/m3 dan 35,05±0,28 µg/m3.  Hasil uji t menunjukan bahwa pada musim hujan dan musim kemarau terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan pada komponen kimia penyusun partikulat halus, yaitu BC, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Ni, Zn, As.  Untuk partikulat kasar unsur yang menunjukkan perbedaan signifikan adalah Al, Si, S, K, Ca, V, Ni, Cu, As, Cl. Perbedaan konsentrasi rata-rata ini kemungkinan disebabkan oleh terjadinya deposisi basah. Berdasarkan analisis sumber pencemar,  PM2,5 ¬diprediksi berasal dari debu tanah/soil, emisi kendaraan dan pembakaran biomassa serta industri, sedangkan PM(10-PM2,5) bersumber dari garam-garam lautan (sea salt), debu tanah, dan industri.

ABSTRACT

Particulate matters (PM) have negative impacts on the environment and human health. PM were categorized based on their size, namely PM10 with size <10 μm (coarse) and PM2,5 with size <2.5 μm (fine). The impact on health will be greater at the smaller particulate size, and depending on their chemical composition. This study is focused on the chemical composition of fine and coarse particulate matter in the rainy and dry seasons as well as their potential sources. Sampling was carried out in DKI Jakarta using a Gent stacked filter sampler unit during the rainy season. The measurement results of total particulate mass and its composition were compared with measurements of a previous study conducted during the dry season. The particulate mass was determined using a Mettler Toledo semi-balance instrument. Furthermore, to determine the elements contained in the coarse and fine filters, an Epsilon 5 EDXRF spectrometer was used. Correlation analysis of the chemical composition were used to predict the emission sources. The results demonstrated that the average concentration of PM2,5 and PM(10-2,5) were lower in the rainy season than in the dry season. The average concentration of fine particulates in the rainy season was 15,31 ± 0,41 µg/m3 and coarse particulates was 28,69 ± 0,56 µg/m3. In the dry season it was 26,76 ± 0,22 µg/m3 and 35,05 ± 0,28 µg/m3. The t-test result showed that there was a significant difference between fine particles composition in the rainy season, particularly for BC, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Ni, Zn, As. For coarse particulates, the elements that show significant differences were Al, Si, S, K, Ca, V, Ni, Cu, As, Cl. The concentration difference was likely due to wet deposition. Based on the analysis of pollutant sources, PM2,5 was predicted to come from soil dust, vehicle emissions and combustion of biomass and fuel industry, while PM (10-PM2,5) (coarse particles) came from sea salt, ground dust, and industry.

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Keywords: Pencemaran Udara, PM2,5, PM(10-PM2,5), Spesiasi partikulat, Pemantauan kualitas udara
Funding: LPDP-DIPI and Newton Fund-RCUK

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