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Estimasi Emisi Partikulat (PM10) akibat Ragam Aktivitas Urban di Kota Surakarta

Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

Received: 9 Oct 2020; Published: 30 Nov 2020.
Editor(s): Sudarno Utomo

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Abstract

Pelaksanaan inventarisasi emisi PM10 di Surakarta bertujuan mengetahui nilai emisi tahunan PM10 dan sebaran kontributornya pada aktivitas masyarakat. Metode pengumpulan data dilakukan secara bottom up pada tahun 2014 terhadap tiga sumber utama emisi yaitu : sumber area, sumber titik dan sumber bergerak serta top down pada tahun 2019. Perhitungan emisi menggunakan formula baku emisi dengan faktor emisi berdasarkan EMEP/EEA Corinair. Khusus untuk transportasi pada ruas jalan utama, data bottom up dianalisis menggunakan software Mobilev 3.0. Hasil inventarisasi emisi PM10 menemukan nilai emisi total di Surakarta sebesar 220,20 ton/tahun. Nilai tersebut mayoritas dikontribusikan oleh sumber bergerak senilai 122,25 ton/tahun (55%), diikuti oleh sumber area (39%) dan sumber titik (6%). Nilai tersebut menurun menjadi 182,61 ton/tahun pada inventarisasi berbasis data top down tahun 2019. Transportasi menjadi kontributor utama emisi PM10 di wilayah administratif Surakarta pada inventarisasi tahun 2014 maupun 2019. Penelitian ini menunjukkan nilai penting penggunaan data bottom up untuk menurunkan ketidakpastian pada estimasi sekaligus meningkatkan validitas dan reliabilitas mitigasi. Penggunaan data bottom up menyediakan akses ke sumber emisi penting yang kerap tidak terdokumentasi oleh data sekunder seperti konsumsi bahan bakar kayu dan arang untuk industri dan kuliner jalan raya.

ABSTRACT

The aim of this inventory is to estimate annual emission of PM10 and their anthropogenic contribution. This research was divided into two phase, distinguished by data collection method (bottom up method in 2014 and top down in method 2019). The estimation used are based on a basic emission formula from IPCC and an emission factors of EMEP/EEA Corinair, except for transportation emission which analyzed with an assistance of the Mobilev 3.0 software. The emission source was classified into three cluster referred to the IPCC Guideline (2006): area sources, point sources and mobile sources. The total emission calculated was 220,20 tonnes PM10 annually.  This value was contributed by the mobile sources (55%), followed by area sources (39%) and point sources (6%). The emission value reduced to 182,61 tonnes PM10 annually in 2019 with approaches of topdown method. Transportation was the main contributor of PM10 emission either on 2014 or 2019. Result shows an advantage of using a topdown approaches, which is to reduce research uncertainties and to increase on mitigation validity and reliability. Bottom up approach provides an access to a unique emission source which generally unidentified and not documented in secondary data, for example : charcoal and woodwaste consumption and the street food vendors

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Keywords: Emisi, Urban, Partikulat (PM10), Surakarta

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