Review: Quorum Sensing Bakteri dan Peranannya pada Perubahan Nilai pH di Kolong Pascatambang Timah dengan Umur Berbeda

*Andri Kurniawan orcid scopus  -  Universitas Bangka Belitung, Indonesia
Euis Asriani  -  Universitas Bangka Belitung, Indonesia
Published: 30 Nov 2020.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/jil.18.3.602-609 View
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Abstract

Bakteri menunjukkan kemampuannya untuk hidup sosial dan berinteraksi dengan koloni lainnya dengan cara membangun suatu komunikasi interseluler melalui mekanisme yang disebut quorum sensing (QS). Komunikasi seluler ini dapat memfasilitasi komunitas bakteri untuk saling merespon, melakukan metabolisme, menyampaikan informasi densitas, dan beraktivitas dengan mengenali molekul sinyal berupa feromon (pheromones) atau autoinducers. Review ini membahas tentang interaksi antarbakteri di kolong pascatambang timah yang dideskripsikan sebagai suatu sistem quorum sensing bakteri tersebut dan peranannya di dalam menghadapi perubahan nilai pH. Populasi bakteri anggota Filum Proteobacteria cenderung sangat sentral di kolong pascatambang timah karena keberadaannya mendominasi di semua umur kolong dengan jumlah yang tinggi. Proteobacteria mampu bersinergi dengan bakteri asidofilik lainnya dalam melakukan aktivitas oksidasi unsur-unsur (elements) yang berdampak pada terbentuknya kondisi pH asam (pH = 3). Proteobacteria juga menunjukkan indikasi mampu mendorong munculnya fungsi penting dari Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, Spirochaeta, dan bakteri lainnya dengan melakukan dekomposisi bahan organik ataupun aktivitas metabolisme yang lain sehingga mampu meningkatkan nilai pH lingkungan kolong pascatambang timah menjadi netral (pH = 7). Struktur komunitas bakteri menunjukkan komposisi bakteri berbeda pada setiap perairan kolong yang mengalami kronosekuens berbeda. Kolong yang berumur < 1 tahun dengan pH sekitar 3 cenderung didominasi Filum Proteobacteria sekitar 30%, kolong berumur 5-10 tahun dengan pH sekitar 3 didominasi Filum Bacteroidetes sekitar > 40%, dan kolong berumur > 15 tahun dengan pH sekitar 7 didominasi Filum Planctomycetes > 37%. Interaksi bakteri melalui quorum sensing diharapkan bermanfaat di dalam proses pengelolaan lingkungan perairan pascatambang timah sehingga menghasilkan suatu ekosistem perairan yang lebih bermanfaat bagi manusia dan organisme perairan lainnya.

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Keywords: Quorum sensing, Bakteri, Kolong pascatambang timah, Manajemen lingkungan, Nilai pH

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