skip to main content

Studi Model Bisnis Eksisting dalam Implementasi Layanan Lumpur Tinja Terjadwal (LLTT) di Bawah Satuan Kerja (Studi kasus: Kota Bekasi dan Kota Makassar) dan BUMD (Studi kasus: Kota Medan dan Kota Surakarta)

1Program Studi Magister Pengelolaan Infrastruktur Air Bersih dan Sanitasi, Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Lingkungan, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Let. Jend. Purn. Dr. (HC) Mashudi No.1, Sayang, Jatinangor, Kabupaten Sumedang, Jawa Barat 45363, Indonesia

2Kelompok Keahlian Rekayasa Air dan Limbah Cair, Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Lingkungan, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa No.10, Lb. Siliwangi, Kecamatan Coblong, Kota Bandung, Jawa Barat 40132, Indonesia

Received: 11 Jul 2021; Revised: 11 Aug 2021; Accepted: 6 Sep 2021; Published: 1 Nov 2021; Available online: 21 Sep 2021.
Editor(s): H. Hadiyanto

Citation Format:
Abstract

Pengelolaan lumpur tinja masih menjadi tantangan yang besar bagi kota-kota di Indonesia. Untuk mendukung optimasi pengelolaan lumpur tinja, Pemerintah Indonesia bekerjasama dengan lembaga nasional maupun internasional telah mengimplementasikan metode Layanan Lumpur Tinja Terjadwal (LLTT) untuk memastikan tercapainya target sanitasi aman. LLTT merupakan bagian dari Sistem Pengelolaan Air Limbah Domestik (SPALD) yang telah diterapkan di beberapa kota di Indonesia dengan perbagai bentuk model bisnis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan mengevaluasi model bisnis yang mengimplementasikan metode LLTT di bawah operator satuan kerja atau UPTD (Unit Pelaksana Teknis Daerah) dan di bawah operator BUMD (Badan Usaha Milik Daerah) dengan metode observasi, studi literatur, serta wawancara. Untuk bentuk UPTD, penelitian dilakukan di Kota Bekasi dan Makassar sedangkan BUMD dilakukan di Kota Medan dan Surakarta. Hasilnya terdapat perbedaan dalam aspek teknis maupun tata kelola dalam implentasi layanan secara terjadwal. Pelaksanaan LLTT di bawah BUMD air minum memiliki pola penentuan zona layan berdasarkan meter air dan radius pelayanan IPLT untuk aspek teknis sedangkan perbedaan dalam hal tata kelola yaitu BUMD memiliki keunggulan atas tarif yang terintegrasi dengan rekening air minum dan memiliki otoritas lebih dalam alokasi pendapatan yang diperoleh atas tarif tersebut. Operator UPTD menentukan zona layanan berdasarkan batas administrasi kota, selain itu untuk aspek tata kelola UPTD memiliki keterbatasan dalam pengelolaan keuangan karena operasionalnya yang dianggarkan satu tahun sekali dalam APBD dan keterbatasan dalam memperoleh pendapatan lain diluar retribusi yang telah ditetapkan dalam peraturan daerah.

 

ABSTRACT

Faecal sludge management (FSM) is still a big challenge for cities in Indonesia. The Government of Indonesia in collaboration with national and international institutions has implemented the scheduled desludging service, in Indonesia we called it Layanan Lumpur Tinja Terjadwal (LLTT), to support the optimization of sludge management due in ensuring the achievement of safely managed sanitation targets. LLTT is part of the domestic wastewater management system which has been implemented in several cities in Indonesia with various forms of business models. This study aims to identify and evaluate the business model that implements the LLTT method that operate under Local’s Work Units (UPTD) and under Regional/Locals’s Owned Enterprises (BUMD) with the method of observation, literature study, and interviews. The research was conducted in the cities of Bekasi and Makassar for UPTD, while the BUMD was conducted in the cities of Medan and Surakarta. The result shows the differences in technical and governance aspects in the implementation of scheduled services. The implementation of LLTT under drinking water BUMD determine the service zone based on water meters and fecal sludge treatment plant’s service radius for technical aspects, while the difference in governance aspect is that BUMD has advantages over tariffs that are integrated with drinking water bills and has more authority in the allocation of income earned on those revenue. UPTD operators determine service zones based on city administrative boundaries, in addition to aspects of governance, UPTD has limitations in financial management due to their operation expenditure which are budgeted once a year in the local revenue budget and limitations in obtaining other income outside the retribution that has been legalized in city/district regulations.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: bisnis model; BUMD; Pengelolaan Lumpur Tinja; Layanan Lumpur Tinja Terjadwal; UPTD
Funding: GSGS didanai oleh Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Article Metrics:

Article Info
Section: Research Article
Language : ID
Statistics:
  1. Abfertiawan, M. S. (2019): Studi Kondisi Eksisting Sistem Pengelolaan Air Limbah Domestik Setempat di Kota Denpasar, Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 17(3), 443. https://doi.org/10.14710/jil.17.3.443-451
  2. Al-Hmoud, R. B., dan Edwards, J. (2004): Private Sector Participation in the Water and Sanitation Sector: Alternative Options and Measurement Issues, Munich Personal RePEc Archive, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/36437/, 18
  3. Bappenas (2019a): Pedoman Pengukuran Capaian Pembangunan Perumahan dan Permukiman Berbasis Hasil (Outcome), Pokja PPAS Nasional, diperoleh 9 November 2020 melalui situs internet: http://nawasis.org/portal/download/digilib/292-buku-panduan-perhitungan-indikator-bappenas-f-isbn-update-pdf.pdf
  4. Bappenas (2019): Rancangan Teknokratik: Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah nasional 2020-2024, Kementerian PPN/ Bappenas, diperoleh melalui situs internet:
  5. https://www.bappenas.go.id/files/rpjmn/Narasi%20RPJMN%20IV%202020-2024_Revisi%2014%20Agustus%202019.pdf
  6. Bayu, T., Kim, H., dan Oki, T. (2020): Water Governance Contribution to Water and Sanitation Access Equality in Developing Countries, Water Resources Research, 56(4). https://doi.org/10.1029/2019WR025330
  7. Bustraan, F., Yuwono, R., Andwiwinarno, N., dan Darmawan, B. (2016): Introduction of Scheduled Desludging Services in Indonesia, Dipresentasikan pada Fecal Sludge Management Conference 4, diperoleh melalui situs internet:
  8. https://www.susana.org/_resources/documents/default/3-2733-7-1488368801.pdf
  9. Center for Water and Sanitation (C-WAS), Centre for Research and Development Foundation (CRDF), dan CEPT University (2019): Business Models for Faecal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM) : A landscape study of four Indian states (Presentation), diperoleh 10 November 2020melalui situs internet: https://pas.org.in/Portal/document/UrbanSanitation/uploads/Business%20Models%20Landscape%20Report_June%208%202019.pdf
  10. Gonzalez de Asis, M., Ljung, P., O’Leary, D., dan Butterworth, J. (2009): Improving Transparency, Integrity, and Accountability in Water Supply and Sanitation: Action, Learning, Experiences, The World Bank. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7892-2
  11. Gun, H. (2008): Economic impacts of sanitation in Indonesia : a five-country study conducted in Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, the Philippines, and Vietnam under the Economics of Sanitation Initiative (ESI) (English). (Water and Sanitation Program), World Bank Group, Washington, D.C., diperoleh melalui situs internet:
  12. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/363811468042881744/Economic-impacts-of-sanitation-in-Indonesia-a-five-country-study-conducted-in-Cambodia-Indonesia-Lao-PDR-the-Philippines-and-Vietnam-under-the-Economics-of-Sanitation-Initiative-ESI, 94
  13. Hall, D., dan Lobina, E. (2012): Financing water and sanitation: public realities, Dipresentasikan pada Public Services International for the 6th World Water Forum,Marseille, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://www.world-psi.org/sites/default/files/documents/research/psiru_financing_water_sanitation.pdf, 25
  14. Iribarnegaray, M., dan Seghezzo, L. (2012): Governance, Sustainability and Decision Making in Water and Sanitation Management Systems, Sustainability, 4(11),2922–2945. https://doi.org/10.3390/su4112922
  15. Mallory, A., Crapper, M., dan Holm, R. H. (2019): Agent-Based Modelling for Simulation-Based Design of Sustainable Faecal Sludge Management Systems, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(7), 1125. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071125
  16. Mardikanto, A. K., Indiyani, A., Listyasari, M., dan Siregar, R. (2017): Moving Towards Improved Urban Septage Management at Scale in Indonesia, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, diperoleh melalui situs internet: www.susana.org, 14
  17. Mills, F., Blackett, I., dan Tayler, K. (2017): Assessing on-site systems and sludge accumulation rates to understand pit emptying in Indonesia, Sustainable Water and Sanitation Services For All in a Fast Changing World, WEDC, Loughborough University, Hanoi, vietnam, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://hdl.handle.net/2134/31078, 7
  18. Moya, B., Parker, A., Sakrabani, R., dan Mesa, B. (2019): Evaluating the Efficacy of Fertilisers Derived from Human Excreta in Agriculture and Their Perception in Antananarivo, Madagascar, Waste and Biomass Valorization, 10(4), 941–952
  19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-017-0113-9
  20. National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN), Statistics Indonesia (BPS), Ministry of Health (Kemenkes), dan ICF (2018): Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2017.pdf, Jakarta, Indonesia, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR342/FR342.pdf
  21. Ngoc, P., Abfertiawan, M. S., Kumar, P., dan Hakim, M. F. (2020): Challenges and Opportunities for Septage Management in the Urban Areas of Indonesia – Case Study in Bandung City, Journal Engineering Technologi Science, 52, 481–500
  22. https://doi.org/10.5614/j.eng.technol.sci.2020.52.4.3
  23. Pemerintah Indonesia (2017): Peraturan Menteri Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat Republik Indonesia No. 54 Tahun 2017 tentang Penyelenggaraan Sistem Pengelolaan Air Limbah Domestik, Pub. L. No. 04/PRT/M/2017 (2017)
  24. Scott, P. (2011): Unbundling Tenure Issues for Urban Sanitation Development, A Doctoral Thesis, Loughborough University of Technology, United Kingdom, diperoleh melalui situs internet: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/bitstream/2134/8493/2/Thesis-2011-Scott.pdf
  25. USAID, I. P. (2016): Saatnya Sekarang! Layanan Lumpur Tinja Terjadwal, diperoleh 12 Maret 2020melalui situs internet:
  26. https://www.iuwashplus.or.id/cms/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Saatnya-Sekarang-LLTT.pdf
  27. Viet-Anh, N. (2016): Landscape Analysis and Business Model Assessment in Fecal Sludge Management: Extraction and Transportation Models in Vietnam, IESE Hanoi University of Civil Engineering. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.3766.8728
  28. World Bank (2020): Data World Bank Country and Lending Groups, diperoleh 5 Oktober 2020, melalui situs internet:
  29. https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-groups

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.