skip to main content

Pengaruh Emisi Kendaraan Terhadap Kandungan Logam Timbal (Pb) Tanah dan Bulir Padi pada Lahan Sawah di Kecamatan Tebas Kabupaten Sambas

1Soil Science Department, Universitas Tanjungpura, Indonesia

2Social Economic of Agriculture, Indonesia

Received: 9 Sep 2021; Revised: 20 Sep 2022; Accepted: 3 Oct 2022; Available online: 3 Jan 2023; Published: 9 Jan 2023.
Editor(s): H. Hadiyanto

Citation Format:
Lead (Pb) is one of most toxic pollutants. The main sources of Pb comes from industrial and vehicle gases. Lead contained in gas from vehicle will be absorbed and accumulated in the soil. Leads in the soil, especially in paddy soil alongside highway with many vehicles have a potential to be absorbed and accumulated in the grain. Solubility of Pb in the soil affecting the absorption of paddy is controlled by soil properties such as texture, organic matter, pH and cation exchange capacity. The research aims to study the effect of vehicle emission on Pb content in the soil, soil properties that influences the presences of Pb in the soil and its accumulation in grain. The research was conducted in paddy soil located alongside the highway of Sambas Regency as a rice producing center in West Kalimantan. Distance of soil and grain samplaing from the road will be used as a treatment to observe the effect of vehicle emission on Pb content, ie 0 – 50 meters, 50 – 100 meters and more than 100 meters. Soil samples were taken at 0-20 cm and 20-50 cm depth. Soil samples and grains are destracted by using nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and perchloric acid. Furthermore, Pb content was measured using Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometry (AAS). The results showed that there is no effect of land distance from the road to the soil content.  The average Pb content at 0-50 m, 50-100 m and more than 100 m at a depth of 0-20 cm were 29,62 ppm, 31,57 ppm and 35,03 ppm, respectively. While the average Pb content at a depth of 20-50 cm, respectively, were 27,16 ppm, 32,53 ppm and 35,97 ppm. The presence of Pb in the soil is significantly correlated with sand and clay fraction. The content of Pb on grains is above the tolerance limit (0,5 ppm) of Pb content in food, fruits and vegetables. Pb content is from 2,07 ppm to 5,10 ppm.
Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Pb content, vehicle emission, soil, grain
Funding: Direktorat Riset dan Pengabdian Masyarakat Dirjen Penguatan Riset dan Pengembangan Kementerian Riset, Teknologi dan PendidikanTinggi

Article Metrics:

  1. Abdurrahman, H. A., A. A. Abdel-Naser A.A. Hafeez, Gamal, A. Kamel and H. S. Ahmed. 2020. Assessment and Spatial Distribution of Cadmium, Nickel and Lead within Soils of Sinnours, Fayoum, Egypt. Egypt. J. Soil. Sci. 60 (3): 247-261
  2. Amelia, R. A., F. Rachmadiarti dan Yuliani. 2015. Analisis Kadar Logam Berat Pb dan Pertumbuhan Tanaman Padi di Area Persawahan Dusun Betas, Desa Kapulungan, Gempol-Pasuruan, J. LenteraBio. 4 (3): 187-191
  3. Appel, C. and L. Ma. 2002. Concentration, pH, and Surface Charge Effects on Cadmium and Lead Sorption in Three Tropical Soils. J. Environ. Qual. 31:581–589
  4. Ciazela, J. and M. Siepak. 2016. Environmental factors Affecting Soil Metals near Outlet Roads in Posnan, Poland: Impact of Grain Size, Soil Depth, and Wind Dispersal. J. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 188: 323
  5. Dao, L., L. Morrison, H. Zhang and C. Zhang. 2014. Influences of Traffic on Pb, Cu, Zn Consentrations in Roadside Soils of an Urban Park in Dublin, Ireland. J. Environment Gheochemical Health. 36: 333-343
  6. Essington, M. E. 2005. Soil and Water Chemistry: An Intergative Approach. CRC Press, New York. 523 p
  7. Eviati dan Sulaeman. 2003. Analisis Kimia Tanah, Tanaman, Air dan Pupuk. Balai Penelitian Tanah, Bogor
  8. Fei, Q., J. Hongbing, L. Qian, G. Xinyue, T. Lei, and F. Jinguo. 2014. Evaluation of Trace Elements and Identification of Pollution Sources in Particle Size Fractions of Soil from Iron Ore Areas Along The Chao River. J. Geochemical Exploration. 138: 33-49
  9. Gololobova, A. A and А. А. Gabysheva. 2019. The Content and Distribution of Lead in The Permafrost Soils of The Northern-Taiga Landscapes of Yakutia. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 320 (2019) 012038
  10. Hernawati, D. dan I. Isiqomah. 2014. Analisis Kandungan Kromium pada Biji Padi (Oryza sativa L.) yang Ditanam di Daerah Sukaregang Garut. J. Ilmiah. 1: 9
  11. Hui, Z., W. Caiqiu, G. Jiping, Y. Xuyin, W. Qiao, P. Wenming, L. Tao, Q. Jie, Z. Hanpei. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Roadside Soils Along the Shenyang-Dalian Highway in Liaoning Province, China. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 26 (4): 1539-1549
  12. Kabata-Pendias, A and H. Pendias. 2011. Trace Elements Boca in Soils and Plants, 4th edition, CRC Press, Raton, Florida, pp. 534
  13. Kahn, S., M. A. Khan and S. Rehman. 2011. Lead and Cadmium Contamination of Different Roadside Soils and Plant in Peshawar City, Pakistan. J. Pedosphere. 21 (3): 351-357
  14. Kluge, B and G. Wessolek. 2012. Heavy Metal Pattern and Solute Concentration in Soils along the Oldest Highway of the World – The AVUS Autobahn. J. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 184: 6469-6481
  15. Krailertrattanachai, N., D. Ketrot and W. Wisawapipat. 2019. The Distribution of Trace Metals in Roadside Agricultural Soils, Thailand. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 16: 714
  16. Levonmäki, M and H. Hartikainen. 2007. Efficiency of Liming in Controlling The Mobility of Lead in Shooting Range Soils as Assessed by Different Experimental Approaches. Science of The Total Environment 388: 1 – 7
  17. Liu WX, Shen LF, Liu JW, Wang YW, Li SR (2007) Uptake of Toxic Heavy Metals by Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivated in Agricultural Soil Near Zhengzhou City, People Republic of China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 79:209–213
  18. Olukanni, D. O and S. A. Adebiyi. 2012. Assessment of Vehicular Pollution of Road Side Soils in Ota Metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria. International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering IJCEE-IJENS 12 (4): 40-46
  19. Olutona, G. O., J. A. O. Oyekunle, M. O. Dawodu, T. O. Ogunwale and P. Kehinde. 2017. Physicochemical Characteristics of Soil and Health Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Metals in Soil and Vegetables from Roadside Farmlands in Iwo, Southwestern Nigeria. J. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 3: 213–218
  20. Palar, P. 2004. Pencemaran dan Toksikologi Logam Berat. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta
  21. Pivić, R. N., B. Aleksandra, S. Sebić, D. Lj. Jošić. 2013. Assessment of Soil and Plant Contamination by Select Heavy Metals Along a Major European Highway. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 22 (5): 1465-1472
  22. Rieuwerts, J. S., I. Thornton, M. E. Farago and M. R. Ashmore. 1998. Factors Influencing Metal Bioavaibility in Soils: Preliminary Investigation for the Development of a Critical Loads Approach for Metal, J. Chemical Speciation and Bioavaibility. 10 (2): 61-75
  23. Romero-Freire, A., F. J. M. Peinado, C. A. M. van Gestel. 2015. Effect of Soil Properties on The Toxicity Appropriateness of Pb: Assessment of The of Guideline Values. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 289: 46–53
  24. Sanra, Y., T. A. Hanifah and S. Bali. 2015. Analisis Kandungan Logam Timbal pada Tanaman Tomat (Solanum lycopersicum L.) yang Ditanam di Pinggir Jalan Raya Kecamatan Aur Birugo Tigo Baleh Bukittinggi, J. OM FMIPA. 2 (1): 136-144
  25. Sauvé, S., M. McBride and W. Hendershot. 1998. Soil Solution Speciation of Lead(II): Effects of Organic Matter and pH. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 62(3): 618
  26. Sipos, P., T. Nemeth, I. Mohai and I. Dodony. 2005. Effect of Soil Composition on Adsorption of Lead as Reflected by a Study on a Natural Forest Soil Profile. Geoderma. 124: 363 – 374
  27. SNI-01-7387-2009. Batas Maksimum Logam Berat dalam Pangan. Dewan Standarisasi BPOM. Bandung. Online:
  28. Wang, M and H. Zhang. 2018. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soil in Urban Area and the Related Impacting Factors. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soil in Urban Area and the Related Impacting Factors. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 15: 1064
  29. Wong, S. C., X. D. Li, G. Zhang, S. H. Qi and Y. S. Min. 2002. Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils of The Pearl River Delta, South China. Environmental Pollutution. 119: 33–44
  30. Yan, X., F. Zhang, C. Zeng, M. Zhang, L. P. Devkota and T. Yao. 2012. Relationship Between Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Grasses of Roadside Farmland in Nepal. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 9: 3209–3226
  31. Yulianto, A., A. H. S. Anwar, Sakhidin, O. Herliana. 2019. The Fffect of Motorized Vehicle Emission Toward Lead Accumulation and Rice Productivity Alongside The Uphill of Paguyangan Main Road, Brebes Regency. Journal Of Degraded And Mining Lands Management 6 (3):1803-1810
  32. Zeng, F., G. Zhang, S. Ali, H. Zhang, Y. Ouyang, B. Qiu and F. Wu. 2011. The Influence of pH and Organic Matter Content in Paddy Soil on Heavy Metal Availability and Their Uptake by Rice Plants. Environmental Pollution. 159: 84–91
  33. Zimdahl, R. L and R. K. Skogerboe. 1997. Behavior of Lead in Soil. Environ Sci Technol. 11:1202–1207

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2024-05-26 23:48:35

No citation recorded.