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Kerentanan Nafkah Rumahtangga Nelayan dalam Tekanan Variabilitas Iklim: Studi Kasus Desa Dendun, Kabupaten Bintan, Kepulauan Riau

1Program Studi Sosiologi Pedesaan Sekolah Pascasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor, Jl. Raya Dramaga, Babakan, Bogor, Indonesia 16680, Indonesia

2Department of Communication Science and Community Development, Faculty of Human Ecology, IPB University, Indonesia

Received: 5 Jun 2022; Revised: 4 Sep 2022; Accepted: 3 Oct 2022; Available online: 3 Jan 2023; Published: 9 Jan 2023.
Editor(s): Budi Warsito

Citation Format:
Abstract

ABSTRAK

Nelayan sangat bergantung pada sumberdaya laut sebagai sumber penghidupan. Faktor iklim dan perubahan cuaca sangat menentukan distribusi dan keberadaan ikan, yang selanjutnya menentukan jumlah tangkapan ikan atau pendapatan nelayan. Perubahan cuaca yang tidak dapat diprediksi serta variabilitas iklim, menimbulkan tekanan yang penting pada kemampuan nelayan kecil untuk melaut. Faktor iklim mengendala kemampuan menangkap ikan dan pendapatan nelayan. Artikel ini mengkaji seberapa rentan penghidupan nelayan kecil dan nelayan besar terdampak oleh tekanan variabilitas iklim dan perubahan cuaca. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis sejauh mana kerentanan rumahtangga nelayan dan upaya strategi nafkah yang dilakukan oleh rumahtangga nelayan. Studi kasus dilakukan di Desa Dendun, Kabupaten Bintan Provinsi Kepulauan Riau Indonesia. Studi ini menggunakan metode penelitian kuantitatif yang didukung oleh pendekatan kualitatif. Sebanyak 40 rumahtangga nelayan kecil dan lima rumahtangga nelayan besar (pukat) diambil sebagai responden dalam sebuah survei. Kuesioner digunakan sebagai instrumen penelitian dengan kombinasi wawancara mendalam untuk mendapatkan data kualitatif. Studi ini menemukan fakta bahwa rumahtangga nelayan kecil lebih memiliki kerentanan nafkah yang mengkhawatirkan, utamanya bila dibandingkan dengan kerentanan nafkah rumahtangga nelayan besar. Peningkatan cuaca ekstrem, gelombang yang kuat mengancam keseluruhan sistem nafkah rumahtangga nelayan kecil. Hasil perhitungan Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) menunjukkan nilai kerentanan rumahtangga nelayan kecil adalah 0,329 sementara nelayan besar adalah 0,145. Studi juga mengungkap bahwa nelayan kecil, sekalipun demikian memiliki strategi nafkah untuk tetap bertahan hidup di bawah tekanan cuaca ekstrem dan variabilitas iklim.

ABSTRACT

Fishermen are very dependent on marine resources as a source of livelihood. Climatic factors and weather changes greatly determine the distribution and presence of fish, which in turn determines the number of fish catches or fishermen's income. Unpredictability of weather changes and climate variability put significant pressure on the ability of small fishermen to go to sea. Climatic factors constrain the ability to catch fish and fishermen's income. This article examines how vulnerable the livelihoods of small and large fishermen are affected by the pressures of climate variability and weather changes. The purpose of this study is to analyze the extent of the vulnerability of fishing households and the livelihood strategy efforts carried out by fishing households. The case study was conducted in Dendun Village, Bintan Regency, Riau Islands Province, Indonesia. This study uses quantitative research methods supported by a qualitative approach. A total of 40 small fishing households and five large fishing households (pukat) were taken as respondents in a survey. Questionnaires were used as research instruments with a combination of in-depth interviews to obtain qualitative data. This study found the fact that small fishing households have a worrying livelihood vulnerability, especially when compared to the livelihood vulnerability of large fishermen households. Increasing extreme weather, strong waves threaten the entire livelihood system of small fishermen's households. The results of the Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) calculation show that the vulnerability value of small fishermen's households is 0.329 while that of large fishermen is 0.145. The study also revealed that small fishermen, however, have livelihood strategies to survive under the stress of extreme weather and climate.

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Keywords: Kerentanan nafkah; Strategi penghidupan; LVI; Rumahtangga nelayan; Modal nafkah

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