skip to main content

The Effect of Variation in Cone Position Heigth on Raw Water Turbidity Removal in Sedimentation Unit Continuous Discharge Flow (CDF) Method as a New Method

Department of Environmental Engineering, Universitas Andalas, Indonesia

Received: 8 Oct 2021; Revised: 21 Nov 2021; Accepted: 29 Nov 2021; Available online: 2 Dec 2021; Published: 1 Jan 2022.
Editor(s): H. Hadiyanto

Citation Format:
Abstract

Unit sedimentasi metode continuous discharges flow (CDF) adalah metode baru dalam menyisihkan kekeruhan yang menggunakan prinsip tangki bocor secara kontinu dan terkendali. Perubahan ketinggian posisi cone dari dasar zona pengendapan ke bagian atas, dapat memperkecil jarak antara sumber aliran buang akibat bocor yang berasal dari cone sebagai sumber gaya baru yang bekerja terhadap flok, dan pada akhirnya meningkatkan efisiensi penyisihan kekeruhan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis efisiensi penyisihan kekeruhan air baku pada 3 variasi ketinggian posisi cone di zona pengendapan. Penelitian menggunakan reaktor skala laboratorium kapasitas 240 L/jam yang terdiri dari unit koagulasi terjunan, flokulasi baffle channel dan sedimentasi metode CDF. Unit sedimentasi metode CDF yang digunakan adalah CDF 6% dengan variasi ketinggian posisi cone 0 m, 0,33 m dan 0,66 m dari dasar zona pengendapan. Air baku yang digunakan adalah Sungai Batang Kuranji Kota Padang dengan kekeruhan 25,876 – 26,012 NTU dan tawas sebagai koagulan dalam proses koagulasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan efisiensi penyisihan kekeruhan pada ketinggian posisi cone 0 m, 0,33 m dan 0,66 m secara berurutan adalah sebesar 82,88%, 83,86% dan 84,60%. Ketinggian posisi cone 0,66 m dari dasar zona pengendapan adalah posisi optimum dengan efisiensi penyisihan kekeruhan 1,72% lebih besar dari posisi cone di dasar zona pengendapan, yaitu 0 m. Analisis pengaruh ketinggian posisi cone terhadap penyisihan kekeruhan menggunakan korelasi Rank Spearman, menunjukkan pengaruh yang sangat kuat, semakin tinggi posisi cone semakin besar efisiensi penyisihan. Bilangan Reynolds (NRe)dan bilangan Froude (NFr) pada aliran buang ini secara berurutan adalah 23,83 dan 9,33x10-4.

 

ABSTRACT

The continuous discharges flow (CDF) sedimentation unit is a new method for removing turbidity using the principle of a continuous and controlled leaking tank. Changes in the height of the cone position from the bottom of the settling zone to the top, can reduce the distance between the exhaust flow sources due to leakage from the cone as a new force source acting on the floc, and ultimately increase the efficiency of turbidity removal. This study aims to analyze the efficiency of raw water turbidity removal at 3 variations in the height of the cone position in the settling zone. The study used a laboratory-scale reactor with a capacity of 240 L/hour consisting of a plunge coagulation unit, baffle channel flocculation, and CDF sedimentation method. The sedimentation unit for the CDF method used is 6% CDF with variations in the height of the cone position 0 m, 0.33 m, and 0.66 m from the bottom of the settling zone. The raw water used is Sungai Batang Kuranji, Padang City with a turbidity of 25.875 – 26.012 NTU and alum as a coagulant in the coagulation process. The results showed that the efficiency of removal of turbidity at the height of the cone 0 m, 0.33 m, and 0.66 m respectively was 82.88%, 83.86%, and 84.60%. The height of the cone position 0.66 m from the bottom of the settling zone is the optimum position with a turbidity removal efficiency of 1.72% greater than the cone position at the bottom of the settling zone, which is 0 m. Analysis of the effect of the height of the cone position on the removal of turbidity using Spearman's Rank correlation showed a very strong influence, the higher the cone position the greater the removal efficiency. Reynolds number (NRe) and Froude number (NFr) in this exhaust stream are 23.83 and 9.33x10-4, respectively.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: removal efficiency; turbidity; cone position height; sedimentation; CDF method
Funding: Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Andalas University

Article Metrics:

  1. Badan Standar Nasional. 2008. Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) No. 6773 Tentang Spesifikasi Unit Paket Instalasi Pengolahan Air. Text in Indonesian
  2. Badan Standar Nasional. 2008. Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) No. 6774 Tentang Tata Cara Perencanaan Unit Paket Instalasi Pengolahan Air. Text in Indonesian
  3. Badan Standar Nasional. 2008. Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) No. 6989.57 Tentang Metoda Pengambilan Contoh Air Permukaan. Text in Indonesian
  4. Badan Standar Nasional. 2000. Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) No. 19.6449 Tentang Metode Pengujian Koagulasi-Flokulasi dengan Cara Jar. Text in Indonesian
  5. Badan Standar Nasional. 2005. Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) No. 06-6989.25 Tentang Cara Uji Kekeruhan dengan Nefelometer, Air dan Air Limbah. Text in Indonesian
  6. Bhorkar, M.P., Bhole, A.G., and Nagarnaik, P.B., 2018. Application of Modified Tube Settler to Improve Sedimentation Process. ASCE India Conference, Dec 2018. 12-14
  7. Budiono, S. 2018. Optimasi Bak Sedimentasi dengan Penambahan Sekat Vertikal Untuk Pengolahan Air Bersih, Skripsi, Institut Teknologi Nasional Malang. Text in Indonesian
  8. Crittenden, J.C., Trussell, R.R., Hand, D.W, Howe, K.J., and Tchobanoglous, G., 2012. Water Treatment: Principles and Design. ed.3, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, New Jersey,
  9. Ermayendri, D. R. 2019. Penurunan Kekeruhan dan TSS pada Unit Sedimentasi dengan Aplikasi Granite Plate Settler dan Tanpa Settler Instalasi Pengolahan Air Bersih. Journal of Nursing and Public Health, 7(1):12-16. Text in Indonesian
  10. Hudson, H. E. Jr., 1981. Water Clarification Processes: Practical Design and Evaluation. Van Nostrand Reinhold Environmental Engineering Series. Litton Educational Publishing Inc
  11. Huisman, L, 1977. Sedimentation and Flotation, Mechanical Filtration. ed.2, Delft University of Technology
  12. Kawamura. 1991. Integrated Design of Water Treatment Facilities. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc
  13. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia (2010), Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia No. 492 Tahun 2010 tentang Persyaratan Kualitas Air Minum. Text in Indonesian
  14. Pratiwi, N. I. dan Annisa, H. 2017. Evaluasi Efektivitas Dan Efisiensi Penggunaan Koagulan Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) Pada Unit Koagulasi-Flokulasi PDAM Gunung Pangilun Kota Padang. Laporan Kerja Praktek Jurusan Teknik Lingkungan, Universitas Andalas, Padang. Text in Indonesian
  15. Putri, D.T.R. 2013. Evaluasi Kinerja Instalasi Pengolahan Air Bersih Unit 1 Sungai Ciapus di Kampus IPB Dramaga Bogor. Teknik Sipil dan Lingkungan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor. Text in Indonesian
  16. Qasim, S.R, Motley, dan Zhu. 2000. Water Works Engineering: Planning, Design, and Operation. Prentice-Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  17. Reynolds, T.D & Richards, P.A., 1996. Unit Operations and Processes in Environmental Engineering. ed.2, PWS Publishing Company
  18. Ridwan and Afrianita, R., (2020). Application of Continuous Discharge Flow (CDF) as New Method in The Sedimentation Unit for Removal of Raw Water Turbidity. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques 9(3), 698-703
  19. Ridwan, Afrianita, R., and Kurniawan, Y., 2021. Modification of The Sedimentation Unit with Continuous Discharges Flow ( CDF ) as a New Method to Increase Turbidity Removal in Raw Water. Andalasian International Journal Application Science, Engineering, Technology, 01(01), 1-9
  20. Saputri, A.W, 2011. Evaluasi Instalasi Pengolahan Air Minum (IPA) Babakan PDAM Tirta Kerta Raharja Kota Tanggerang. Teknik Lingkungan, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Indonesia, Depok
  21. Sujarweni, W. 2014. SPSS untuk Penelitian. Pustaka Baru Press Yogyakarta
  22. WHO. 2008. Turbidity Measurement: the importance of measuring turbidity: Fact sheet 2.33. Geneva: WHO

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2023-12-06 14:35:52

No citation recorded.